Utilisation of non-edible source (Pongamia pinnata seeds shells) for producing methyl esters as cleaner fuel in the presence of a novel heterogeneous catalyst synthesized from waste eggshells

Ala’A H. Al-Muhtaseb*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Waste eggshells were considered for synthesising a precursor (CaO) for a heterogeneous catalyst, further impregnated by alkali caesium oxide (Cs2O). The following techniques were used to characterise the synthesised catalysts: X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Temperature Programmed Desorption (CO2-TPD). The synthesised catalyst revealed its suitability for transesterification to produce biodiesel. The biodiesel production process was optimised, and it showed that the optimal biodiesel yield is 93.59%. The optimal set of process parameters is process temperature 80C, process time 90 min, methanol-to-oil molar ratio 8 and catalyst loading 3 wt.%. It has been found that the high basicity of the catalyst tends to give a high biodiesel yield at low methanol-to-oil ratio 8 when the reaction time is also less (90 min). The fuel properties of biodiesel also satisfied the standard limits defined by ASTM and the EN standards. Thus, the synthesised catalyst from waste eggshells is highly active, improved the biodiesel production conditions and PPSS oil is a potential nonedible source.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5772
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 2021


  • Biodiesel
  • Caesium oxide
  • Heterogeneous catalyst
  • Nonedible biomass
  • Process optimisation
  • Waste eggshells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry

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