Waste eggshells were considered for synthesising a precursor (CaO) for a heterogeneous catalyst, further impregnated by alkali caesium oxide (Cs2O). The following techniques were used to characterise the synthesised catalysts: X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Temperature Programmed Desorption (CO2-TPD). The synthesised catalyst revealed its suitability for transesterification to produce biodiesel. The biodiesel production process was optimised, and it showed that the optimal biodiesel yield is 93.59%. The optimal set of process parameters is process temperature 80◦C, process time 90 min, methanol-to-oil molar ratio 8 and catalyst loading 3 wt.%. It has been found that the high basicity of the catalyst tends to give a high biodiesel yield at low methanol-to-oil ratio 8 when the reaction time is also less (90 min). The fuel properties of biodiesel also satisfied the standard limits defined by ASTM and the EN standards. Thus, the synthesised catalyst from waste eggshells is highly active, improved the biodiesel production conditions and PPSS oil is a potential nonedible source.
|المعرِّفات الرقمية للأشياء|
|حالة النشر||Published - أكتوبر 1 2021|
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