Investigating the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis: the role of tourism and ecological footprint

Ilhan Ozturk*, Usama Al-Mulali, Behnaz Saboori

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

282 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The main objective of this study is to examine the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis by utilizing the ecological footprint as an environment indicator and GDP from tourism as the economic indicator. To achieve this goal, an environmental degradation model is established during the period of 1988–2008 for 144 countries. The results from the time series generalized method of moments (GMM) and the system panel GMM revealed that the number of countries that have a negative relationship between the ecological footprint and its determinants (GDP growth from tourism, energy consumption, trade openness, and urbanization) is more existent in the upper middle- and high-income countries. Moreover, the EKC hypothesis is more present in the upper middle- and high-income countries than the other income countries. From the outcome of this research, a number of policy recommendations were provided for the investigated countries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1916-1928
Number of pages13
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Volume23
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2016
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Ecological footprint
  • Environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis
  • GDP from tourism
  • The generalized method of moments

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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