Changes in self-efficacy and social support after an intervention to increase physical activity among adults with type 2 diabetes in oman a 12-month follow-up of the movediabetes trial

Thamra S. Al-Ghafri*, Saud Al-Harthi, Yahya Al-Farsi, Angela M. Craigie, Elaine Bannerman, Annie S. Anderson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: This study aimed to describe changes in self-efficacy (SE) and social support (SS) 12 months after the MOVEdiabetes trial, an intervention designed to increase physical activity (PA) among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Oman. Methods: The original MOVEdiabetes trial was conducted between April 2016 and June 2017 in Muscat, Oman. The intervention group (IG) received personalised PA consultations, pedometers and monthly messages using a web-based application, while the comparison group received usual care. Self-reported SE and SS from family and friends were assessed using validated psychosocial scales. Results: Of the 232 original participants in the trial, a total of 174 completed the 12 months follow-up study period (response rate: 75%). However, based on intention-to-treat analysis with several imputation procedures for missing data at 3 and/or 12 months, there was a significant increase in SE scores in the IG (+10.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.1–13.5; P <0.001); however, the correlation with PA levels was weak (+4.2, 95% CI: 2.7–5.7; P <0.001). Higher SE scores were noted in those without comorbidities (+12.2, 95% CI: 6.8–17.6; P <0.001) and with high income levels (+9.7, 95% CI: 5.2–14.2; P <0.001). Additionally, SS scores increased significantly among those in the IG who received support from friends (+2.3, 95% CI: 1.1–3.7; P <0.001), but not family (+1.2, 95% CI: −0.4–2.8; P = 0.110). The reliability of the scales was acceptable for SE and SS from family, but poor for SS from friends (Cronbach’s alpha coefficients = 0.82, 0.82 and 0.40, respectively). Conclusion: The PA intervention was associated with positive changes in SE and SS from friends. However, further tools for assessing psychosocial influences on PA are needed in Arab countries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e42-e49
JournalSultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Health behaviors
  • Oman
  • Physical activity
  • Primary healthcare
  • Self-management
  • Social support, self-efficacy
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this