Objectives: This study aimed to describe changes in self-efficacy (SE) and social support (SS) 12 months after the MOVEdiabetes trial, an intervention designed to increase physical activity (PA) among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Oman. Methods: The original MOVEdiabetes trial was conducted between April 2016 and June 2017 in Muscat, Oman. The intervention group (IG) received personalised PA consultations, pedometers and monthly messages using a web-based application, while the comparison group received usual care. Self-reported SE and SS from family and friends were assessed using validated psychosocial scales. Results: Of the 232 original participants in the trial, a total of 174 completed the 12 months follow-up study period (response rate: 75%). However, based on intention-to-treat analysis with several imputation procedures for missing data at 3 and/or 12 months, there was a significant increase in SE scores in the IG (+10.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.1–13.5; P <0.001); however, the correlation with PA levels was weak (+4.2, 95% CI: 2.7–5.7; P <0.001). Higher SE scores were noted in those without comorbidities (+12.2, 95% CI: 6.8–17.6; P <0.001) and with high income levels (+9.7, 95% CI: 5.2–14.2; P <0.001). Additionally, SS scores increased significantly among those in the IG who received support from friends (+2.3, 95% CI: 1.1–3.7; P <0.001), but not family (+1.2, 95% CI: −0.4–2.8; P = 0.110). The reliability of the scales was acceptable for SE and SS from family, but poor for SS from friends (Cronbach’s alpha coefficients = 0.82, 0.82 and 0.40, respectively). Conclusion: The PA intervention was associated with positive changes in SE and SS from friends. However, further tools for assessing psychosocial influences on PA are needed in Arab countries.
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