Visual motor integration as a screener for responders and non-responders in preschool and early school years: implications for inclusive assessment in Oman

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Visual motor integration (VMI) is the ability of the eyes and hands to work together in smooth, efficient patterns. In Oman, there are few effective methods to assess VMI skills in children in inclusive settings. The current study investigated the performance of preschool and early school years responders and non-responders on a VMI test. The full range test of visual motor integration (FRTVMI) was administered to a sample of 359 children from preschool and elementary school settings in Oman. A two-way analysis of variance showed that there are statistically significant differences in VMI between preschool and early school non-responders. Gender did not show any effect on preschool children's performance on the FRTVMI, whereas it had an effect on elementary school children's performance. Results of the study are discussed in relation to the use of VMI assessment in screening for responders and non-responders in preschool and elementary school settings. Implications for psycho-educational assessment of children who struggle academically in inclusive settings are presented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Inclusive Education
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Mar 3 2016



  • early school years
  • Oman
  • response to intervention
  • Visual motor integration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Education

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