Toxicities, kinetics and degradation pathways investigation of ciprofloxacin degradation using iron-mediated H2O2 based advanced oxidation processes

Noor S. Shah*, Allah Ditta Rizwan, Javed Ali Khan, Murtaza Sayed, Zia Ul Haq Khan, Behzad Murtaza, Jibran Iqbal, Salah Ud Din, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Nadeem, Ala Al-Muhtaseb, Nawshad Muhammad, Hasan M. Khan, Moinuddin Ghauri, Gohar Zaman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Ciprofloxacin (CIP) is a widespread emerging water pollutant and thus its removal from aquatic environment is vital. The use of Fe3+/H2O2 and Fe2+/H2O2 resulted in 38 and 64% removal of CIP (8.0 ppm), respectively, within 80 min reaction time (pH 5.8, [H2O2]0 = 80 ppm, and [iron]0 = 20 ppm). Low pH, high temperature, high dose of H2O2 and Fe2+, and low CIP concentration facilitated removal of CIP. The radical scavenger studies proved in situ generated [rad]OH to be involved primarily in the removal of CIP. The effect of temperature was used to estimate enthalpy and activation energies of the removal of CIP. At 800 min reaction time, the Fe2+/H2O2 resulted in 54% mineralization of CIP using 16.0 ppm [CIP]0, 320.0 ppm [H2O2]0, and 40.0 ppm [Fe2+]0. The potential degradation pathways of CIP established from the degradation of CIP by [rad]OH and products evolved was found to be initiated at C6 through the loss of fluoride ion. The acute and chronic toxicities of CIP and its degradation products were estimated with the final product found to be non-toxic. The results suggest that Fe2+/H2O2-mediated AOPs have high potential for degradation as well as toxicity elimination of CIP and its degradation products.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)473-482
Number of pages10
JournalProcess Safety and Environmental Protection
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2018


  • AOPs
  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Degradation pathways
  • Toxicity assessment
  • Water treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality


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