The Role of Advanced Glycation End Products on Dyslipidemia

Jelena Vekic*, Sanja Vujcic, Biljana Bufan, Dragana Bojanin, Khamis Al-Hashmi, Khaild Al-Rasadi, Anca Pantea Stoian, Aleksandra Zeljkovic, Manfredi Rizzo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Disorders of lipoprotein metabolism and glucose homeostasis are common consequences of insulin resistance and usually co-segregate in patients with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Insulin-resistant subjects are characterized by atherogenic dyslipidemia, a specific lipid pattern which includes hypertriglyceridemia, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and increased proportion of small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Chronic hyperglycemia favors the processes of non-enzymatic glycation, leading to the increased production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Apart from direct harmful effects, AGEs are also potent inducers of oxidative stress and inflammation. In addition, increased AGEs’ production may induce further qualitative modifications of small, dense LDL particles, converting them to glycated LDLs. These particles are even more atherogenic and may confer an increased cardiovascular risk. In this narrative review, we summarize the available evidence of the pathophysiological role and clinical importance of circulating AGEs and glycated LDLs in patients with dyslipidemia, particularly those with DM and related complications. In addition, we discuss recent advances and the issues that should be improved regarding laboratory assessment of AGEs and glycated LDLs, as well as the possibilities for their therapeutic modulation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number77
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • AGEs
  • atherogenic dyslipidemia
  • diabetes
  • glycated LDL
  • small, dense LDL

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology

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