The prospect of malaria elimination in the Arabian Peninsula: A population genetic approach

Salama Al-Hamidhi, Mohammed A K Mahdy, Mohamed Ahmed Idris, Saad M. Bin Dajem, Adel Ali H Al-Sheikh, Ahmed Al-Qahtani, Zainab Al-Hashami, Hissa Al-Farsi, Abdulsalam M. Al-mekhlafi, Riyadh Saif-Ali, Albano Beja-Pereira, Hamza A. Babiker

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Abstract

Background: In the Arabian Peninsula malaria control is progressing steadily, backed by adequate logistic and political support. As a result, transmission has been interrupted throughout the region, with exception of limited sites in Yemen and Saudi Arabia. Here we examined Plasmodium falciparum parasites in these sites to assess if the above success has limited diversity and gene flow. Methods: We examined 108 P. falciparum isolates in three sites in Yemen (Taiz, Dhamar and Hodeidah) and 91 isolates from Saudi Arabia (Jazan). Nine microsatellites were analyzed for allelic diversity, multi-locus haplotype and inter-population differentiation. Results: Diversity at each locus (unbiased heterozygosity [. H]) was relatively lower in Yemen; (Hodeidah, H= 0.615, Taiz, H= 0.66, Dhamar, H= 0.481), compared to Saudi Arabia (Jazan, H= 0.76). Microsatellites were distributed widely and private alleles, detected in a single population, were rare.Pairwise comparisons revealed that parasites population in Dhamar was relatively distanced (FST=0.19). However, Taiz (Yemen) (FST=0.065) and Hodeidah (FST=0.107) populations were closer to that in Jazan (Saudi Arabia). Nonetheless, parasites in the four sites can be considered as one population. Conclusion: Although malaria risk in Saudi Arabia has been cut considerably, the extent of diversity and parasite genetic structure are indicative of a large population size. Elimination strategy should target demographic factors that favor parasite dispersal and flow of imported malaria.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25-31
Number of pages7
JournalInfection, Genetics and Evolution
Volume27
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

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Saudi Arabia
Yemen
malaria
Population Genetics
population genetics
Malaria
parasite
Parasites
parasites
Population
Plasmodium falciparum
Microsatellite Repeats
microsatellite repeats
loci
Gene Flow
Genetic Structures
Population Density
heterozygosity
Haplotypes
genetic structure

Keywords

  • Arabian Peninsula
  • Genetic diversity
  • Plasmodium falciparum
  • Population structure
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Yemen

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Genetics
  • Molecular Biology
  • Microbiology
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Microbiology (medical)

Cite this

The prospect of malaria elimination in the Arabian Peninsula : A population genetic approach. / Al-Hamidhi, Salama; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Idris, Mohamed Ahmed; Bin Dajem, Saad M.; Al-Sheikh, Adel Ali H; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed; Al-Hashami, Zainab; Al-Farsi, Hissa; Al-mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M.; Saif-Ali, Riyadh; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Babiker, Hamza A.

In: Infection, Genetics and Evolution, Vol. 27, 2014, p. 25-31.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Al-Hamidhi, S, Mahdy, MAK, Idris, MA, Bin Dajem, SM, Al-Sheikh, AAH, Al-Qahtani, A, Al-Hashami, Z, Al-Farsi, H, Al-mekhlafi, AM, Saif-Ali, R, Beja-Pereira, A & Babiker, HA 2014, 'The prospect of malaria elimination in the Arabian Peninsula: A population genetic approach', Infection, Genetics and Evolution, vol. 27, pp. 25-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2014.06.015
Al-Hamidhi, Salama ; Mahdy, Mohammed A K ; Idris, Mohamed Ahmed ; Bin Dajem, Saad M. ; Al-Sheikh, Adel Ali H ; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed ; Al-Hashami, Zainab ; Al-Farsi, Hissa ; Al-mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M. ; Saif-Ali, Riyadh ; Beja-Pereira, Albano ; Babiker, Hamza A. / The prospect of malaria elimination in the Arabian Peninsula : A population genetic approach. In: Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 2014 ; Vol. 27. pp. 25-31.
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T1 - The prospect of malaria elimination in the Arabian Peninsula

T2 - A population genetic approach

AU - Al-Hamidhi, Salama

AU - Mahdy, Mohammed A K

AU - Idris, Mohamed Ahmed

AU - Bin Dajem, Saad M.

AU - Al-Sheikh, Adel Ali H

AU - Al-Qahtani, Ahmed

AU - Al-Hashami, Zainab

AU - Al-Farsi, Hissa

AU - Al-mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M.

AU - Saif-Ali, Riyadh

AU - Beja-Pereira, Albano

AU - Babiker, Hamza A.

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Background: In the Arabian Peninsula malaria control is progressing steadily, backed by adequate logistic and political support. As a result, transmission has been interrupted throughout the region, with exception of limited sites in Yemen and Saudi Arabia. Here we examined Plasmodium falciparum parasites in these sites to assess if the above success has limited diversity and gene flow. Methods: We examined 108 P. falciparum isolates in three sites in Yemen (Taiz, Dhamar and Hodeidah) and 91 isolates from Saudi Arabia (Jazan). Nine microsatellites were analyzed for allelic diversity, multi-locus haplotype and inter-population differentiation. Results: Diversity at each locus (unbiased heterozygosity [. H]) was relatively lower in Yemen; (Hodeidah, H= 0.615, Taiz, H= 0.66, Dhamar, H= 0.481), compared to Saudi Arabia (Jazan, H= 0.76). Microsatellites were distributed widely and private alleles, detected in a single population, were rare.Pairwise comparisons revealed that parasites population in Dhamar was relatively distanced (FST=0.19). However, Taiz (Yemen) (FST=0.065) and Hodeidah (FST=0.107) populations were closer to that in Jazan (Saudi Arabia). Nonetheless, parasites in the four sites can be considered as one population. Conclusion: Although malaria risk in Saudi Arabia has been cut considerably, the extent of diversity and parasite genetic structure are indicative of a large population size. Elimination strategy should target demographic factors that favor parasite dispersal and flow of imported malaria.

AB - Background: In the Arabian Peninsula malaria control is progressing steadily, backed by adequate logistic and political support. As a result, transmission has been interrupted throughout the region, with exception of limited sites in Yemen and Saudi Arabia. Here we examined Plasmodium falciparum parasites in these sites to assess if the above success has limited diversity and gene flow. Methods: We examined 108 P. falciparum isolates in three sites in Yemen (Taiz, Dhamar and Hodeidah) and 91 isolates from Saudi Arabia (Jazan). Nine microsatellites were analyzed for allelic diversity, multi-locus haplotype and inter-population differentiation. Results: Diversity at each locus (unbiased heterozygosity [. H]) was relatively lower in Yemen; (Hodeidah, H= 0.615, Taiz, H= 0.66, Dhamar, H= 0.481), compared to Saudi Arabia (Jazan, H= 0.76). Microsatellites were distributed widely and private alleles, detected in a single population, were rare.Pairwise comparisons revealed that parasites population in Dhamar was relatively distanced (FST=0.19). However, Taiz (Yemen) (FST=0.065) and Hodeidah (FST=0.107) populations were closer to that in Jazan (Saudi Arabia). Nonetheless, parasites in the four sites can be considered as one population. Conclusion: Although malaria risk in Saudi Arabia has been cut considerably, the extent of diversity and parasite genetic structure are indicative of a large population size. Elimination strategy should target demographic factors that favor parasite dispersal and flow of imported malaria.

KW - Arabian Peninsula

KW - Genetic diversity

KW - Plasmodium falciparum

KW - Population structure

KW - Saudi Arabia

KW - Yemen

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