The effects of furosemide on behavioral and hormonal parameters in male and female mice subjected to immobilization and cold-water stress

Mohammed Al Za’abi, Badreldin H. Ali, Yousuf Al Suleimani, Ibrahim Al-Zakwani, Balqees Al-Fulaiti, Priyadarsini Manoj, Abderrahim Nemmar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: The diuretic agent furosemide (FUR, 25 and 50 mg/kg) has been shown in a single report to act as an anti-stressor agent in two models of acute stress in mice, viz. electric foot–shock stress and immobilization (IMS). The present work aimed to investigate the possible anti-stressor action of FUR on two models of acute stress in mice, cold-water stress (CWS) and IMS, and tried to determine whether gender has any impact on the effect of FUR. Methods: FUR (40 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally, and after 30 minutes, mice were subjected to CWS (4°C for three minutes) or IMS (fixing movement for two and a half hrs using adhesive tape). Motor and exploratory activities, neuromuscular coordination, and thermal nociception were then tested. Blood was collected from the mice and used to measure the concentrations of three stress hormones (corticosterone, epinephrine and prolactin). Results: Mice subjected to CWS and IMS had significantly reduced motor and exploratory activities, neuromuscular coordination, and increased nociception. CWS and IMS also significantly increased the plasma concentrations of the three hormones. FUR pretreatment significantly mitigated these stress-induced hormonal changes. There was no significant sex difference when CWS or IMS was applied. Discussion: IMS and CWS stimuli in male and female mice caused significant elevations in the plasma concentrations of corticosterone, epinephrine, and prolactin, accompanied by a significant reduction of motor and exploratory activities, neuromuscular coordination, and thermal nocicep-tion. There were no sex differences when IMS was applied. In stressed mice, prior administration of FUR (40 mg/kg) significantly decreased the concentrations of stress hormones, and this effect significantly mitigated the stress-induced behavioural and motor changes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)637-643
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Experimental Pharmacology
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Cold-water stress
  • Corticosterone
  • Epinephrine
  • Furosemide
  • Immobilization stress
  • Prolactin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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