Structural and compositional tuning in g-C3N4 based systems for photocatalytic antibiotic degradation

P. Suyana, Priyanka Ganguly, Balagopal N. Nair, Suresh C. Pillai*, U. S. Hareesh

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


The uncontrolled and unethical release of pharmaceutical contaminants into aquatic sources have severe adversities, including the possible emergence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Photocatalysis utilizing semiconductor heterostructures is a greener and sustainable option for the effective degradation of organic contaminants into relatively harmless by-products. Visible/sunlight active graphitic carbon nitride based photocatalysts have been explored for antibiotic degradation (Tetracycline, Doxycycline, Oxytetracycline, Sulfamethoxazole, Amoxicillin) owing to their excellent chemical/thermal stability, tunable photophysical properties and facile methods of synthesis. The properties were further enhanced by heterostructure formation with other compatible semiconductors, elemental/molecular doping and through the creation of hierarchically porous structures. Moreover, nanocomposite formation with high surface area porous frameworks induces adsorptive photocatalysis imparting bifunctionality and alleviating secondary remediation measures for regeneration of the catalysts. The review summarizes the efforts in developing C3N4 based systems for the effective degradation of various antibiotics. Finally, an outlook on essential improvements is forecasted.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100148
JournalChemical Engineering Journal Advances
Publication statusPublished - Nov 15 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Antibiotic waste
  • Circular economy
  • Doping
  • Graphitic carbon nitride
  • Heterostructure
  • Photocatalysis
  • Surface modification
  • Waste to energy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Chemistry(all)


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