Stratigraphic and sedimentological attributes in Hazara Basin Lesser Himalaya, North Pakistan: their role in deciphering minerals potential

Muhammad Umar*, Muhammad Amjad Sabir, Muhammad Farooq, Malik Muhammad Saud Sajid Khan, Faridullah Faridullah, Umair Khan Jadoon, Abdul Salam Khan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


Hazara Basin lies within lesser Himalayan region and has undergone complex depositional and tectonic episodes responsible for accumulation of different economic minerals. Phosphate, ironstone, manganese, coal and china clay deposits reported from the area indicate different sedimentary environments including deep marine to carbonate and clastic shallow marine, glaciogenic and fluvial systems. These variable environments were mainly a result of different tectonic events, which were caused by formation and rifting of Rodina, Gondwana, Pangaea, India, Madagascar and collision of India with Eurasia. Phosphate was formed in anoxic shallow marine environments during Cambrian in Sirban Member and Hazira Formation, whereas, ironstone deposits were formed in oxygenated shelf and/or residual mechanisms during nondepositional periods, e.g., at the base of Jurassic and Tertiary successions. China clay was also formed at unconformable surface at the base of Shinwari Formation of Jurassic age. Coal within Chichali Formation was formed in anoxic, organic-rich deltaic shelf conditions. Basin evolution combined with stratigraphic set up of the region has played very important role in formation and exploration of these economic mineral deposits.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1653-1667
Number of pages15
JournalArabian Journal of Geosciences
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Basin evolution
  • Lesser Himalaya
  • Mineral potential
  • Pakistan
  • Stratigraphy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)

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