Radiation dose and cancer risk in patients undergoing multiple radiographs in intravenous urography X-ray examinations

I. I. Suliman, Amna J. Al-Jabri, A. A. Badawi, M. A. Halato, K. Alzimami, A. Sulieman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of the this study was to measure the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) and body organs, and the effective doses in intravenous urography (IVU) X-ray examinations in Sudanese hospitals. Seventy-two patients who underwent IVU multiple radiographs from five hospitals (six rooms) were examined. ESAK was calculated from incident air kerma (Ki) using patient exposure parameters and tube output Y( d). Dose calculations were performed using CALDOSE X 5.1 Monte Carlo-based software. Risk of cancer induction (4-8) and mortality per million (2-4) varied. The gallbladder, colon, stomach, gonads and uterus received organ doses of 5.3, 3.6, 3.2, 0.61, and 0.8. mGy, respectively. ESAK values ranged from 6.6 to 15.3. mGy (effective doses: 0.70-1.6. mSv). Mean ESAK fall slightly above the diagnostic reference level. Several optimization strategies to improve dose performance were discussed. Reducing the number of radiographs and the use of technique charts according to patient sizes and anatomic areas are among the most important dose optimization tools in IVU.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)272-275
Number of pages4
JournalRadiation Physics and Chemistry
Publication statusPublished - 2014



  • Effective dose
  • Entrance surface air kerma
  • Intravenous urography
  • X-rays

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation

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