Pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles promotes cerebral microvessel thrombosis: Protective effect of a cysteine prodrug l-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid

Abderrahim Nemmar, Suhail Al-Salam, Subramanian Dhanasekaran, Manjusha Sudhadevi, Badreldin H. Ali

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

54 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Inhaled particulate matter is associated with increased cerebro- and cardiovascular events. However, the systemic mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the relationship between airway and systemic inflammation and pial cerebral venular thrombosis, 24 h after intratracheal (i.t.) instillation of diesel exhaust particles (DEP; 15 or 30 μg/mouse) or saline (control). Doses of 15 and 30 μg/mouse induced a dose-dependent macrophage and neutrophil influx into the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid with elevation of total proteins and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), but without IL-6 release. Similarly, in plasma, IL-6 concentrations did not increase but the TEAC was significantly and dose-dependently decreased. The number of platelets and the tail bleeding time were both significantly reduced after exposure to DEP (30 μg). Interestingly, the same dose showed platelet proaggregatory effect in mouse pial cerebral venules. Pretreatment with the cysteine prodrug l-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (OTC, 80 mg/kg) 24 and 1 h before i.t. DEP (30 μg), abolished the DEP-induced macrophage and neutrophil influx, and the increase of TEAC in BAL. Lung histopathology confirmed the protective effect of OTC on DEP-induced lung inflammation. OTC also reversed the decrease of TEAC concentrations in plasma, the shortening of the bleeding time, and the thrombotic effect of DEP in pial cerebral venules. We conclude that pulmonary exposure to DEP cause oxidative stress responsible, at least partially, for the pulmonary and systemic inflammation and thrombotic events in the pial cerebral microvessels of mice. OTC pretreatment abrogated these effects through its ability to balance oxidant-antioxidant status.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)84-92
Number of pages9
JournalToxicology
Volume263
Issue number2-3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 19 2009

Keywords

  • Diesel exhaust particles
  • l-2-Oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid
  • Lung inflammation
  • Particulate air pollution
  • Thrombosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

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