Possible Existence of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Hippocampal (HPH) Axis: A Reciprocal Relationship Between Hippocampal Specific Neuroestradiol Synthesis and Neuroblastosis in Ageing Brains with Special Reference to Menopause and Neurocognitive Disorders

Mahesh Kandasamy*, Risna Kanjirassery Radhakrishnan, G. P. Poornimai Abirami, Syed Aasish Roshan, Ajisha Yesudhas, Kadalmani Balamuthu, Chidambaram Prahalathan, Sellathamby Shanmugaapriya, Anbalagan Moorthy, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Muthuswamy Anusuyadevi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The hippocampus-derived neuroestradiol plays a major role in neuroplasticity, independent of circulating estradiol that originates from gonads. The response of hypothalamus-pituitary regions towards the synthesis of neuroestradiol in the hippocampus is an emerging scientific concept in cognitive neuroscience. Hippocampal plasticity has been proposed to be regulated via neuroblasts, a major cellular determinant of functional neurogenesis in the adult brain. Defects in differentiation, integration and survival of neuroblasts in the hippocampus appear to be an underlying cause of neurocognitive disorders. Gonadotropin receptors and steroidogenic enzymes have been found to be expressed in neuroblasts in the hippocampus of the brain. However, the reciprocal relationship between hippocampal-specific neuroestradiol synthesis along neuroblastosis and response of pituitary based feedback regulation towards regulation of estradiol level in the hippocampus have not completely been ascertained. Therefore, this conceptual article revisits (1) the cellular basis of neuroestradiol synthesis (2) a potential relationship between neuroestradiol synthesis and neuroblastosis in the hippocampus (3) the possible involvement of aberrant neuroestradiol production with mitochondrial dysfunctions and dyslipidemia in menopause and adult-onset neurodegenerative disorders and (4) provides a hypothesis for the possible existence of the hypothalamic-pituitary-hippocampal (HPH) axis in the adult brain. Eventually, understanding the regulation of hippocampal neurogenesis by abnormal levels of neuroestradiol concentration in association with the feedback regulation of HPH axis might provide additional cues to establish a neuroregenerative therapeutic management for mood swings, depression and cognitive decline in menopause and neurocognitive disorders.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1781-1795
Number of pages15
JournalNeurochemical Research
Volume44
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 2019

Keywords

  • Dementia
  • Estradiol
  • Hippocampus
  • Hypothalamic-pituitary-hippocampal axis
  • Menopause
  • Neuroblastosis
  • Neurocognitive disorders
  • Neurogenesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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