On paper synthesis of multifunctional CeO2 nanoparticles@Fe-MOF composite as a multi-enzyme cascade platform for multiplex colorimetric detection of glucose, fructose, sucrose, and maltose

Javad Hassanzadeh, Haider A.J. Al Lawati*, Nafiseh Bagheri

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study reports an economical and portable point-of-care (POC) monitoring device based on artificial multi-enzyme cascade systems for multiple detection purposes. The device was made up of a disposable three dimensional microfluidic paper-based analytical device (3D μPAD) with multiple detection zones and a smartphone readout. On-paper synthesis of a multifunctional mimetic composite, based on the CeO2 nanoparticles embedded in the amino-functionalized Fe metal-organic frameworks (CeO2@NH2-MIL-88B(Fe)), for cascade reactions was the main achievement of this work. The 3D μPAD was applied for simultaneous quantification of glucose, fructose, sucrose and maltose, and the detection process consisted of the enzymatic reaction of each sugar by anchored enzymes on the metal-organic frameworks (MOF) and successive oxidation of 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB). Utilizing the new artificial mimicking system improved the color development uniformity and resulted in a reliable detection tool, with excellent detection limits in the range of 20–280 μM. It was directly applied to analyze the sugars levels of human total blood, urine, semen, honey and juice samples with the relative errors of less than 7.7% compared with the HPLC method. The cost-effective and easy-to-use μPAD has a great potential to be used in either medical diagnostics or the food industry. Also, it can be considered as a competitive POC method for patients in disadvantaged communities or emergencies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number114184
JournalBiosensors and Bioelectronics
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Artificial enzyme
  • Colorimetric
  • Metal-organic framework
  • Paper-based analytical device
  • Point-of-care diagnosis
  • Sugars

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biophysics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Electrochemistry

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