The late Cretaceous-lower Tertiary hydrothermal alteration of serpentinized peridotite in the Semail ophiolite has formed two distinct types of listwaenite. Type I is characterized by the presence of calcite (Type IA) or dolomite (Type IB)+fuchsite±spinel. Type II is dominated by silicate minerals (quartz, chlorite, fuchsite)±calcite+dolomite±magnetite±apatite±plagioclase. Most listwaenites occur as veins along thrust fault zones within the ophiolite mélange. High Cr and Ni contents, abundant occurrence of Cr-spinel within a matrix of red-brown ferruginous carbonates within a micro-vein network of goethite, and the relics of mesh texture indicate an ultramafic protolith. Type I and II listwaenites represent different stages of hydrothermal alteration. The mineralogical and chemical distinctions of both types are the response to the extent of the reactions between the protoliths and the solutions leading to different stages of metasomatic replacement. The hydrothermal fluids involved in the formation of Type I listwaenite were enriched in Ca, Mg, and CO2, whereas Type II listwaenite bodies were formed from a hydrothermal fluid enriched in SiO2. REE and trace elements in both listwaenite types were extracted in part from adjoining peridotite. No Au anomaly in the study areas has been detected.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geochemistry and Petrology