Gender disparity in lipid target achievements in high and very high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk patients in the Arabian Gulf

Ibrahim Al-Zakwani, Abdullah Shehab, Ali T. Al-Hinai, Wael Al Mahmeed, Mohamed Arafah, Omer Al-Tamimi, Mahmoud Al-Awadhi, Faisal Al Anazi, Haitham Amin, Khalid Al Nemer, Shorook Al Herz, Othman Metwally, Akram Alkhadra, Mohammed Fakhry, Hossam Elghetany, Abdel R. Medani, Afzal Hussein Yusufali, Obaid Al Jassim, Omar Al-Hallaq, Fahad Omar Ahmed S. BaslaibKhalid Al-Waili, Khamis Al-Hashmi, Vasilios G. Athyros, Khalid Al-Rasadi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Few studies assessed gender disparity in lipid goal attainment in the Arabian Gulf. Hence, we estimated gender gaps in lipid target achievements among patients at high and very high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk in the Centralized Pan-Middle East Survey on the undertreatment of hypercholesterolemia (CEPHEUS). Methods: The study (conducted between November 22, 2009 and July 7, 2010) included 4,384 patients (≥18 years) on lipid lowering drugs at high and very ASCVD risk status from outpatient clinics of 177 specialists and primary care physicians in 6 Arabian Gulf countries. Results: The overall mean age was 57±11 years and 40% (n=1763) were women. Women were more likely to have diabetes mellitus (84 vs 71%; p <0.001) and metabolic syndrome (49 vs 35%; p <0.001) compared with males. Women were less likely to achieve their low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) (28 vs 32%; p = 0.002), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (42 vs 50%; p <0.001), and apolipoprotein B (Apo B) (38 vs 42%; p = 0.015) targets compared with men. In the very high ASCVD risk cohort, women were significantly less likely to achieve their LDL-C (20 vs 30%; p <0.001), non-HDL-C (34 vs 39%; p = 0.001) and Apo B (34 vs 41%; p <0.001) therapeutic targets compared with men. Conclusion: Women in the Arabian Gulf were less likely to achieve their lipid targets than men. The difference was more significant in the very high ASCVD risk group.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)51-58
Number of pages8
JournalCurrent Vascular Pharmacology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2017



  • Apolipoprotein B
  • Arabs
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • LDL cholesterol
  • Non-HDL-C
  • Sex
  • Triglycerides
  • Women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this