Next generation sequencing (NGS) of DNAs amplified by rolling circle amplification from 6 tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants with leaf curl symptoms identified a number of monopartite begomoviruses, including Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), and a betasatellite (Tomato leaf curl betasatellite [ToLCB]). Both TYLCV and ToLCB have previously been identified infecting tomato in Oman. Surprisingly the NGS results also suggested the presence of the bipartite, legume-adapted begomovirus Mungbean yellow mosaic Indian virus (MYMIV). The presence of MYMIV was confirmed by cloning and Sanger sequencing from four of the six plants. A wider analysis by PCR showed MYMIV infection of tomato in Oman to be widespread. Inoculation of plants with full-length clones showed the host range of MYMIV not to extend to Nicotiana benthamiana or tomato. Inoculation to N. benthamiana showed TYLCV to be capable of maintaining MYMIV in both the presence and absence of the betasatellite. In tomato MYMIV was only maintained by TYLCV in the presence of the betasatellite and then only at low titre and efficiency. This is the first identification of TYLCV with ToLCB and the legume adapted bipartite begomovirus MYMIV co-infecting tomato. This finding has far reaching implications. TYLCV has spread around the World from its origins in the Mediterranean/Middle East, in some instances, in live tomato planting material. The results here may suggest that begomoviruses which do not commonly infect tomato, such as MYMIV, could be spread as a passenger of TYLCV in tomato.
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