Examining the moderating effect of individual-level cultural values on users’ acceptance of E-learning in developing countries: a structural equation modeling of an extended technology acceptance model

Ali Tarhini, Kate Hone, Xiaohui Liu, Takwa Tarhini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

81 Citations (Scopus)


In this study, we examine the effects of individual-level culture on the adoption and acceptance of e-learning tools by students in Lebanon using a theoretical framework based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). To overcome possible limitations of using TAM in developing countries, we extend TAM to include subjective norms (SN) and quality of work life constructs as additional constructs and a number of cultural variables as moderators. The four cultural dimensions of masculinity/femininity (MF), individualism/collectivism, power distance and uncertainty avoidance were measured at the individual level to enable them to be integrated into the extended TAM as moderators and a research model was developed based on previous literature. To test the hypothesised model, data were collected from 569 undergraduate and postgraduate students using e-learning tools in Lebanon via questionnaire. The collected data were analysed using the structural equation modelling technique in conjunction with multi-group analysis. As hypothesised, the results of the study revealed perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU), SN and quality of work life to be significant determinants of students’ behavioural intention (BI) towards e-learning. The empirical results also demonstrated that the relationship between SN and BI was particularly sensitive to differences in individual-cultural values, with significant moderating effects observed for all four of the cultural dimensions studied. Some moderating effects of culture were also found for both PU and PEOU, however, contrary to expectations the effect of quality of work life was not found to be moderated by MF as some previous authors have predicted. The implications of these results to both theory and practice are explored in the paper.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)306-328
Number of pages23
JournalInteractive Learning Environments
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Apr 3 2017



  • Culture
  • developing countries
  • e-learning
  • individual behaviour
  • individual-level culture
  • individualism/collectivism
  • Lebanon
  • masculinity/femininity
  • power distance
  • structural equation modelling
  • TAM
  • technology acceptance
  • uncertainty avoidance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Computer Science Applications

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