Differences in hypoglycemia event rates and associated cost-consequence in patients initiated on long-acting and intermediate-acting insulin products

Michael F. Bullano, Ibrahim S. Al-Zakwani, Maxine D. Fisher, Laura Menditto, Vincent J. Willey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

54 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: To compare hypoglycemia event rates in patients initiated on long-acting insulin analog (glargine) or intermediate-acting insulin (NPH) and to analyze the associated cost-consequence from a managed care perspective. Study design: A retrospective analysis of pharmacy and medical claims and electronic laboratory result data using a southeastern United States managed care health plan. Methods: Patients newly initiated on glargine or NPH between July 1, 2000 and August 31, 2002 were included. Hypoglycemia events were identified from medical claims by their ICD-9-CM codes. Multivariable techniques were used to compare hypoglycemia event rates between cohorts. Results: A total of 1434 patients were eligible (glargine = 310, NPH = 1124). The mean age was 53 years ± 17 years and 51 % of patients were male. The mean treatment duration was 8.6 months ± 4.5 months. Multivariate analyses showed that patients in the NPH group had a higher hypoglycemia event rate than the glargine group (18.3 versus 7.3 per 100 patients per year; p = 0.009). The number needed to treat (glargine versus NPH) to avoid one hypoglycemia event per patient per year was nine patients at an A1C of 7%. The mean annual index medication cost was $47 more for glargine ($390) than for NPH ($343) per patient per year (p = 0.042). The mean cost per hypoglycemia event was $1087 (95% CI: $764-$1409). Conclusions: Patients treated with glargine had significantly lower hypoglycemia event rates compared to the NPH group. The risk difference indicated that one hypoglycemia event would be avoided for every nine patients treated with glargine instead of NPH. The cost increase associated with treating nine patients with glargine rather than NPH is less than the cost of treating one hypoglycemia event. In this population, the savings associated with reduced hypoglycemic events more than offset the increased acquisition cost associated with glargine.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)291-298
Number of pages8
JournalCurrent Medical Research and Opinion
Volume21
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2005

Fingerprint

Hypoglycemia
Insulin
Costs and Cost Analysis
Managed Care Programs
Long-Acting Insulin
Medical Electronics
Insulin Glargine
Isophane Insulin
Southeastern United States
Numbers Needed To Treat
International Classification of Diseases
Hypoglycemic Agents
Multivariate Analysis

Keywords

  • Cost
  • Economics
  • Glargine
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Insulin
  • Observational

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Differences in hypoglycemia event rates and associated cost-consequence in patients initiated on long-acting and intermediate-acting insulin products. / Bullano, Michael F.; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim S.; Fisher, Maxine D.; Menditto, Laura; Willey, Vincent J.

In: Current Medical Research and Opinion, Vol. 21, No. 2, 02.2005, p. 291-298.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Objective: To compare hypoglycemia event rates in patients initiated on long-acting insulin analog (glargine) or intermediate-acting insulin (NPH) and to analyze the associated cost-consequence from a managed care perspective. Study design: A retrospective analysis of pharmacy and medical claims and electronic laboratory result data using a southeastern United States managed care health plan. Methods: Patients newly initiated on glargine or NPH between July 1, 2000 and August 31, 2002 were included. Hypoglycemia events were identified from medical claims by their ICD-9-CM codes. Multivariable techniques were used to compare hypoglycemia event rates between cohorts. Results: A total of 1434 patients were eligible (glargine = 310, NPH = 1124). The mean age was 53 years ± 17 years and 51 {\%} of patients were male. The mean treatment duration was 8.6 months ± 4.5 months. Multivariate analyses showed that patients in the NPH group had a higher hypoglycemia event rate than the glargine group (18.3 versus 7.3 per 100 patients per year; p = 0.009). The number needed to treat (glargine versus NPH) to avoid one hypoglycemia event per patient per year was nine patients at an A1C of 7{\%}. The mean annual index medication cost was $47 more for glargine ($390) than for NPH ($343) per patient per year (p = 0.042). The mean cost per hypoglycemia event was $1087 (95{\%} CI: $764-$1409). Conclusions: Patients treated with glargine had significantly lower hypoglycemia event rates compared to the NPH group. The risk difference indicated that one hypoglycemia event would be avoided for every nine patients treated with glargine instead of NPH. The cost increase associated with treating nine patients with glargine rather than NPH is less than the cost of treating one hypoglycemia event. In this population, the savings associated with reduced hypoglycemic events more than offset the increased acquisition cost associated with glargine.",
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AU - Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim S.

AU - Fisher, Maxine D.

AU - Menditto, Laura

AU - Willey, Vincent J.

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N2 - Objective: To compare hypoglycemia event rates in patients initiated on long-acting insulin analog (glargine) or intermediate-acting insulin (NPH) and to analyze the associated cost-consequence from a managed care perspective. Study design: A retrospective analysis of pharmacy and medical claims and electronic laboratory result data using a southeastern United States managed care health plan. Methods: Patients newly initiated on glargine or NPH between July 1, 2000 and August 31, 2002 were included. Hypoglycemia events were identified from medical claims by their ICD-9-CM codes. Multivariable techniques were used to compare hypoglycemia event rates between cohorts. Results: A total of 1434 patients were eligible (glargine = 310, NPH = 1124). The mean age was 53 years ± 17 years and 51 % of patients were male. The mean treatment duration was 8.6 months ± 4.5 months. Multivariate analyses showed that patients in the NPH group had a higher hypoglycemia event rate than the glargine group (18.3 versus 7.3 per 100 patients per year; p = 0.009). The number needed to treat (glargine versus NPH) to avoid one hypoglycemia event per patient per year was nine patients at an A1C of 7%. The mean annual index medication cost was $47 more for glargine ($390) than for NPH ($343) per patient per year (p = 0.042). The mean cost per hypoglycemia event was $1087 (95% CI: $764-$1409). Conclusions: Patients treated with glargine had significantly lower hypoglycemia event rates compared to the NPH group. The risk difference indicated that one hypoglycemia event would be avoided for every nine patients treated with glargine instead of NPH. The cost increase associated with treating nine patients with glargine rather than NPH is less than the cost of treating one hypoglycemia event. In this population, the savings associated with reduced hypoglycemic events more than offset the increased acquisition cost associated with glargine.

AB - Objective: To compare hypoglycemia event rates in patients initiated on long-acting insulin analog (glargine) or intermediate-acting insulin (NPH) and to analyze the associated cost-consequence from a managed care perspective. Study design: A retrospective analysis of pharmacy and medical claims and electronic laboratory result data using a southeastern United States managed care health plan. Methods: Patients newly initiated on glargine or NPH between July 1, 2000 and August 31, 2002 were included. Hypoglycemia events were identified from medical claims by their ICD-9-CM codes. Multivariable techniques were used to compare hypoglycemia event rates between cohorts. Results: A total of 1434 patients were eligible (glargine = 310, NPH = 1124). The mean age was 53 years ± 17 years and 51 % of patients were male. The mean treatment duration was 8.6 months ± 4.5 months. Multivariate analyses showed that patients in the NPH group had a higher hypoglycemia event rate than the glargine group (18.3 versus 7.3 per 100 patients per year; p = 0.009). The number needed to treat (glargine versus NPH) to avoid one hypoglycemia event per patient per year was nine patients at an A1C of 7%. The mean annual index medication cost was $47 more for glargine ($390) than for NPH ($343) per patient per year (p = 0.042). The mean cost per hypoglycemia event was $1087 (95% CI: $764-$1409). Conclusions: Patients treated with glargine had significantly lower hypoglycemia event rates compared to the NPH group. The risk difference indicated that one hypoglycemia event would be avoided for every nine patients treated with glargine instead of NPH. The cost increase associated with treating nine patients with glargine rather than NPH is less than the cost of treating one hypoglycemia event. In this population, the savings associated with reduced hypoglycemic events more than offset the increased acquisition cost associated with glargine.

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KW - Insulin

KW - Observational

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