CORMIX simulations of brine discharges from Barka plants, Oman

Anton Purnama, H. H. Al-Barwani, T. Bleninger, R. L. Doneker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

There are two power generation and seawater desalination plants currently operated at Barka, Oman: Barka I was commissioned in 2003, and Barka II in 2009. The cooling water from the power generation plants are mixed with reject brine (and other effluents) from desalination plants and are discharged through the same marine outfall systems. Therefore, during 2009, the brine discharge plumes changed from the previously positively buoyant from Barka I plant to a newly negatively buoyant from the combined Barka I and II plants. Consequently, instead of rising to the sea-surface, the new brine plume will now tend to sink and stay at the seabed. CORMIX simulations were carried out for two scenarios that represent the previous heated brine discharges and the new concentrated brine discharges from the Barka plants. Due to uncertainty in the input data, further simulations were carried out using salinity as a measure of the plume concentration for single port and multiport, and by varying the ambient current velocity, the effluent discharge density and flow rate. The results show that the water quality standards in the Omani coastal marine environment within the regulatory mixing zone at a 150 m radius from the discharge point have been met for both scenarios. However, the potential benthic impact due to the attachment of the new brine plume at the seabed should be monitored and investigated further.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)329-338
Number of pages10
JournalDesalination and Water Treatment
Volume32
Issue number1-3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

Fingerprint

Desalination
brine
Power generation
Effluents
Outfalls
Cooling water
plume
Seawater
Water quality
simulation
Flow rate
power generation
effluent
cooling water
current velocity
coastal zone
marine environment
sea surface
seawater
water quality

Keywords

  • Barka desalination plants
  • Brine discharge
  • CORMIX
  • Marine outfall
  • Multiport
  • Oman

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Ocean Engineering

Cite this

CORMIX simulations of brine discharges from Barka plants, Oman. / Purnama, Anton; Al-Barwani, H. H.; Bleninger, T.; Doneker, R. L.

In: Desalination and Water Treatment, Vol. 32, No. 1-3, 2011, p. 329-338.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Purnama, Anton ; Al-Barwani, H. H. ; Bleninger, T. ; Doneker, R. L. / CORMIX simulations of brine discharges from Barka plants, Oman. In: Desalination and Water Treatment. 2011 ; Vol. 32, No. 1-3. pp. 329-338.
@article{80b2b772a3394425b1a619a2c1461732,
title = "CORMIX simulations of brine discharges from Barka plants, Oman",
abstract = "There are two power generation and seawater desalination plants currently operated at Barka, Oman: Barka I was commissioned in 2003, and Barka II in 2009. The cooling water from the power generation plants are mixed with reject brine (and other effluents) from desalination plants and are discharged through the same marine outfall systems. Therefore, during 2009, the brine discharge plumes changed from the previously positively buoyant from Barka I plant to a newly negatively buoyant from the combined Barka I and II plants. Consequently, instead of rising to the sea-surface, the new brine plume will now tend to sink and stay at the seabed. CORMIX simulations were carried out for two scenarios that represent the previous heated brine discharges and the new concentrated brine discharges from the Barka plants. Due to uncertainty in the input data, further simulations were carried out using salinity as a measure of the plume concentration for single port and multiport, and by varying the ambient current velocity, the effluent discharge density and flow rate. The results show that the water quality standards in the Omani coastal marine environment within the regulatory mixing zone at a 150 m radius from the discharge point have been met for both scenarios. However, the potential benthic impact due to the attachment of the new brine plume at the seabed should be monitored and investigated further.",
keywords = "Barka desalination plants, Brine discharge, CORMIX, Marine outfall, Multiport, Oman",
author = "Anton Purnama and Al-Barwani, {H. H.} and T. Bleninger and Doneker, {R. L.}",
year = "2011",
doi = "10.5004/dwt.2011.2718",
language = "English",
volume = "32",
pages = "329--338",
journal = "Desalination and Water Treatment",
issn = "1944-3994",
publisher = "Taylor and Francis Ltd.",
number = "1-3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - CORMIX simulations of brine discharges from Barka plants, Oman

AU - Purnama, Anton

AU - Al-Barwani, H. H.

AU - Bleninger, T.

AU - Doneker, R. L.

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - There are two power generation and seawater desalination plants currently operated at Barka, Oman: Barka I was commissioned in 2003, and Barka II in 2009. The cooling water from the power generation plants are mixed with reject brine (and other effluents) from desalination plants and are discharged through the same marine outfall systems. Therefore, during 2009, the brine discharge plumes changed from the previously positively buoyant from Barka I plant to a newly negatively buoyant from the combined Barka I and II plants. Consequently, instead of rising to the sea-surface, the new brine plume will now tend to sink and stay at the seabed. CORMIX simulations were carried out for two scenarios that represent the previous heated brine discharges and the new concentrated brine discharges from the Barka plants. Due to uncertainty in the input data, further simulations were carried out using salinity as a measure of the plume concentration for single port and multiport, and by varying the ambient current velocity, the effluent discharge density and flow rate. The results show that the water quality standards in the Omani coastal marine environment within the regulatory mixing zone at a 150 m radius from the discharge point have been met for both scenarios. However, the potential benthic impact due to the attachment of the new brine plume at the seabed should be monitored and investigated further.

AB - There are two power generation and seawater desalination plants currently operated at Barka, Oman: Barka I was commissioned in 2003, and Barka II in 2009. The cooling water from the power generation plants are mixed with reject brine (and other effluents) from desalination plants and are discharged through the same marine outfall systems. Therefore, during 2009, the brine discharge plumes changed from the previously positively buoyant from Barka I plant to a newly negatively buoyant from the combined Barka I and II plants. Consequently, instead of rising to the sea-surface, the new brine plume will now tend to sink and stay at the seabed. CORMIX simulations were carried out for two scenarios that represent the previous heated brine discharges and the new concentrated brine discharges from the Barka plants. Due to uncertainty in the input data, further simulations were carried out using salinity as a measure of the plume concentration for single port and multiport, and by varying the ambient current velocity, the effluent discharge density and flow rate. The results show that the water quality standards in the Omani coastal marine environment within the regulatory mixing zone at a 150 m radius from the discharge point have been met for both scenarios. However, the potential benthic impact due to the attachment of the new brine plume at the seabed should be monitored and investigated further.

KW - Barka desalination plants

KW - Brine discharge

KW - CORMIX

KW - Marine outfall

KW - Multiport

KW - Oman

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=80052911782&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=80052911782&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.5004/dwt.2011.2718

DO - 10.5004/dwt.2011.2718

M3 - Article

VL - 32

SP - 329

EP - 338

JO - Desalination and Water Treatment

JF - Desalination and Water Treatment

SN - 1944-3994

IS - 1-3

ER -