Characterisation of nicotine and cancer-enhancing anions in the common smokeless tobacco Afzal in Oman

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Abstract

Objectives: Afzal is a common smokeless tobacco product (STP) available illegally in Oman. This study aimed to assess pH and moisture levels and determine cancer-enhancing factors in a randomly selected sample of Afzal. Methods: This study was carried out at the Sultan Qaboos University in Muscat, Oman, between April and December 2013. A package of Afzal was purchased from a single provider and divided into samples. The pH and moisture content of the samples were measured according to the protocols of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyse nicotine levels and ionexchange chromatography (IC) was used to determine concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, chloride, fluoride, bromide, sulphate and phosphate anions. Results: The samples had an alkaline pH of 10.46 with high levels of total (48,770.00 μg per g of STP [μg/g]) and unionised (48,590.00 μg/g) nicotine. The concentration of nitrate (8,792.20 μg/g) was alarmingly high. The chloride concentration (33,170.80 μg/g) showed a surge on IC chromatography. The moisture content percentage was 52.00%. Conclusion: The moisture content percentage and chloride concentration of Afzal was consistent with those of other STPs. In contrast, nitrite, sulphate and phosphate concentrations were below reported levels of other STPs. All anion concentrations were below the maximum daily limit set by international health organisations. However, the high concentrations of nitrite, nitrate and nicotine and the elevated alkaline pH observed in the analysed Afzal samples suggest that STP users will face health risks as a result of their use.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e469-e476
JournalSultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
Volume15
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2015

Fingerprint

Oman
Smokeless Tobacco
Nicotine
Anions
Nitrites
Tobacco Products
Nitrates
Chromatography
Chlorides
Sulfates
Neoplasms
Phosphates
Health
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
Bromides
Fluorides
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Organizations

Keywords

  • Anions
  • Carcinogens
  • Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
  • Ion-exchange chromatography
  • Nicotine
  • Oman
  • Smokeless tobaccos

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

@article{2dd19da4d43e4a05bd4453e1a3406816,
title = "Characterisation of nicotine and cancer-enhancing anions in the common smokeless tobacco Afzal in Oman",
abstract = "Objectives: Afzal is a common smokeless tobacco product (STP) available illegally in Oman. This study aimed to assess pH and moisture levels and determine cancer-enhancing factors in a randomly selected sample of Afzal. Methods: This study was carried out at the Sultan Qaboos University in Muscat, Oman, between April and December 2013. A package of Afzal was purchased from a single provider and divided into samples. The pH and moisture content of the samples were measured according to the protocols of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyse nicotine levels and ionexchange chromatography (IC) was used to determine concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, chloride, fluoride, bromide, sulphate and phosphate anions. Results: The samples had an alkaline pH of 10.46 with high levels of total (48,770.00 μg per g of STP [μg/g]) and unionised (48,590.00 μg/g) nicotine. The concentration of nitrate (8,792.20 μg/g) was alarmingly high. The chloride concentration (33,170.80 μg/g) showed a surge on IC chromatography. The moisture content percentage was 52.00{\%}. Conclusion: The moisture content percentage and chloride concentration of Afzal was consistent with those of other STPs. In contrast, nitrite, sulphate and phosphate concentrations were below reported levels of other STPs. All anion concentrations were below the maximum daily limit set by international health organisations. However, the high concentrations of nitrite, nitrate and nicotine and the elevated alkaline pH observed in the analysed Afzal samples suggest that STP users will face health risks as a result of their use.",
keywords = "Anions, Carcinogens, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Ion-exchange chromatography, Nicotine, Oman, Smokeless tobaccos",
author = "Al-Mukhaini, {Nawal M.} and Ba-Omar, {Taher A.} and Eltayeb, {Elsadig A.} and Al-Shehi, {Aisha H.}",
year = "2015",
month = "11",
day = "1",
doi = "10.18295/squmj.2015.15.04.005",
language = "English",
volume = "15",
pages = "e469--e476",
journal = "Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Characterisation of nicotine and cancer-enhancing anions in the common smokeless tobacco Afzal in Oman

AU - Al-Mukhaini, Nawal M.

AU - Ba-Omar, Taher A.

AU - Eltayeb, Elsadig A.

AU - Al-Shehi, Aisha H.

PY - 2015/11/1

Y1 - 2015/11/1

N2 - Objectives: Afzal is a common smokeless tobacco product (STP) available illegally in Oman. This study aimed to assess pH and moisture levels and determine cancer-enhancing factors in a randomly selected sample of Afzal. Methods: This study was carried out at the Sultan Qaboos University in Muscat, Oman, between April and December 2013. A package of Afzal was purchased from a single provider and divided into samples. The pH and moisture content of the samples were measured according to the protocols of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyse nicotine levels and ionexchange chromatography (IC) was used to determine concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, chloride, fluoride, bromide, sulphate and phosphate anions. Results: The samples had an alkaline pH of 10.46 with high levels of total (48,770.00 μg per g of STP [μg/g]) and unionised (48,590.00 μg/g) nicotine. The concentration of nitrate (8,792.20 μg/g) was alarmingly high. The chloride concentration (33,170.80 μg/g) showed a surge on IC chromatography. The moisture content percentage was 52.00%. Conclusion: The moisture content percentage and chloride concentration of Afzal was consistent with those of other STPs. In contrast, nitrite, sulphate and phosphate concentrations were below reported levels of other STPs. All anion concentrations were below the maximum daily limit set by international health organisations. However, the high concentrations of nitrite, nitrate and nicotine and the elevated alkaline pH observed in the analysed Afzal samples suggest that STP users will face health risks as a result of their use.

AB - Objectives: Afzal is a common smokeless tobacco product (STP) available illegally in Oman. This study aimed to assess pH and moisture levels and determine cancer-enhancing factors in a randomly selected sample of Afzal. Methods: This study was carried out at the Sultan Qaboos University in Muscat, Oman, between April and December 2013. A package of Afzal was purchased from a single provider and divided into samples. The pH and moisture content of the samples were measured according to the protocols of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyse nicotine levels and ionexchange chromatography (IC) was used to determine concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, chloride, fluoride, bromide, sulphate and phosphate anions. Results: The samples had an alkaline pH of 10.46 with high levels of total (48,770.00 μg per g of STP [μg/g]) and unionised (48,590.00 μg/g) nicotine. The concentration of nitrate (8,792.20 μg/g) was alarmingly high. The chloride concentration (33,170.80 μg/g) showed a surge on IC chromatography. The moisture content percentage was 52.00%. Conclusion: The moisture content percentage and chloride concentration of Afzal was consistent with those of other STPs. In contrast, nitrite, sulphate and phosphate concentrations were below reported levels of other STPs. All anion concentrations were below the maximum daily limit set by international health organisations. However, the high concentrations of nitrite, nitrate and nicotine and the elevated alkaline pH observed in the analysed Afzal samples suggest that STP users will face health risks as a result of their use.

KW - Anions

KW - Carcinogens

KW - Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

KW - Ion-exchange chromatography

KW - Nicotine

KW - Oman

KW - Smokeless tobaccos

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U2 - 10.18295/squmj.2015.15.04.005

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