Biological, environmental and socioeconomic threats to citrus lime production

Philip Donkersley, Farley W.S. Silva, Claudine M. Carvalho, Abdullah Al-Sadi, Simon L. Elliot

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Limes as a fruit crop are of great economic importance, key to Asian and South American cuisines and cultivated in nearly all tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Demand for limes is increasing, driven by World Health Organization recommendations. Pests and pathogens have significantly reduced global productivity, while changes in agronomic techniques aim to alleviate this stress. We present here a holistic examination of the major biotic (pests and pathogens) and abiotic (environment and socioeconomic) factors that presently limit global production of lime. The major producers of limes are India, China and Mexico, while loss of lime production in the United States from 2006 has led many countries in the Western Hemisphere (Mexico, Costa Rica and Brazil) to export primarily to the USA. The most widespread invertebrate pests of lime are Toxoptera citricida and Scirtothrips citri. Another insect, Diaphorina citri, vectors both Huanglongbing (HLB) and Witches Broom of Lime, which are particularly destructive diseases. Developing agronomic techniques focus on production of resistant and pathogen-free planting materials and control of insect vectors. HLB infects citrus in nearly all growing regions, and has been particularly devastating in Asian citrus. Meanwhile, Citrus tristeza virus has infected over 100 million citrus trees, mainly in the Americas and Mediterranean. Currently, Witches Broom Disease of Lime is localised to the Middle East, but recently it has been detected in South America. The range of its vectors (D. citri and Hishimonus phycitis) further raises concerns about the potential spread of this disease. Abiotic threats to lime production are also a significant concern; key areas of lime production such as Mexico, India and the Middle East suffer from increasing water stress and high soil salinity, which combined with invasive pests and pathogens, may eliminate lime production in these areas. To ensure future security in lime production, policy makers, researchers and growers will need to examine the potential of more resistant lime cultivars and establish novel areas of cultivation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)339-356
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Plant Diseases and Protection
Volume125
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 2018

Fingerprint

Citrus
socioeconomics
pests
Diaphorina citri
greening disease
witches' broom
pathogens
Mexico
Middle East
Scirtothrips citri
Toxoptera citricida
Citrus tristeza virus
cuisine
India
insect vectors
socioeconomic factors
fruit crops
World Health Organization
soil salinity
subtropics

Keywords

  • Acid lime
  • Citrus aurantiifolia
  • Insect vectors
  • Pathogens
  • Pest distributions
  • Soil salinity
  • Water stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Plant Science
  • Horticulture

Cite this

Biological, environmental and socioeconomic threats to citrus lime production. / Donkersley, Philip; Silva, Farley W.S.; Carvalho, Claudine M.; Al-Sadi, Abdullah; Elliot, Simon L.

In: Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, Vol. 125, No. 4, 01.08.2018, p. 339-356.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Donkersley, Philip ; Silva, Farley W.S. ; Carvalho, Claudine M. ; Al-Sadi, Abdullah ; Elliot, Simon L. / Biological, environmental and socioeconomic threats to citrus lime production. In: Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection. 2018 ; Vol. 125, No. 4. pp. 339-356.
@article{f90df07b120d4d95b852ba364bedf7bc,
title = "Biological, environmental and socioeconomic threats to citrus lime production",
abstract = "Limes as a fruit crop are of great economic importance, key to Asian and South American cuisines and cultivated in nearly all tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Demand for limes is increasing, driven by World Health Organization recommendations. Pests and pathogens have significantly reduced global productivity, while changes in agronomic techniques aim to alleviate this stress. We present here a holistic examination of the major biotic (pests and pathogens) and abiotic (environment and socioeconomic) factors that presently limit global production of lime. The major producers of limes are India, China and Mexico, while loss of lime production in the United States from 2006 has led many countries in the Western Hemisphere (Mexico, Costa Rica and Brazil) to export primarily to the USA. The most widespread invertebrate pests of lime are Toxoptera citricida and Scirtothrips citri. Another insect, Diaphorina citri, vectors both Huanglongbing (HLB) and Witches Broom of Lime, which are particularly destructive diseases. Developing agronomic techniques focus on production of resistant and pathogen-free planting materials and control of insect vectors. HLB infects citrus in nearly all growing regions, and has been particularly devastating in Asian citrus. Meanwhile, Citrus tristeza virus has infected over 100 million citrus trees, mainly in the Americas and Mediterranean. Currently, Witches Broom Disease of Lime is localised to the Middle East, but recently it has been detected in South America. The range of its vectors (D. citri and Hishimonus phycitis) further raises concerns about the potential spread of this disease. Abiotic threats to lime production are also a significant concern; key areas of lime production such as Mexico, India and the Middle East suffer from increasing water stress and high soil salinity, which combined with invasive pests and pathogens, may eliminate lime production in these areas. To ensure future security in lime production, policy makers, researchers and growers will need to examine the potential of more resistant lime cultivars and establish novel areas of cultivation.",
keywords = "Acid lime, Citrus aurantiifolia, Insect vectors, Pathogens, Pest distributions, Soil salinity, Water stress",
author = "Philip Donkersley and Silva, {Farley W.S.} and Carvalho, {Claudine M.} and Abdullah Al-Sadi and Elliot, {Simon L.}",
year = "2018",
month = "8",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/s41348-018-0160-x",
language = "English",
volume = "125",
pages = "339--356",
journal = "Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection",
issn = "1861-3829",
publisher = "Verlag Eugen Ulmer",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Biological, environmental and socioeconomic threats to citrus lime production

AU - Donkersley, Philip

AU - Silva, Farley W.S.

AU - Carvalho, Claudine M.

AU - Al-Sadi, Abdullah

AU - Elliot, Simon L.

PY - 2018/8/1

Y1 - 2018/8/1

N2 - Limes as a fruit crop are of great economic importance, key to Asian and South American cuisines and cultivated in nearly all tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Demand for limes is increasing, driven by World Health Organization recommendations. Pests and pathogens have significantly reduced global productivity, while changes in agronomic techniques aim to alleviate this stress. We present here a holistic examination of the major biotic (pests and pathogens) and abiotic (environment and socioeconomic) factors that presently limit global production of lime. The major producers of limes are India, China and Mexico, while loss of lime production in the United States from 2006 has led many countries in the Western Hemisphere (Mexico, Costa Rica and Brazil) to export primarily to the USA. The most widespread invertebrate pests of lime are Toxoptera citricida and Scirtothrips citri. Another insect, Diaphorina citri, vectors both Huanglongbing (HLB) and Witches Broom of Lime, which are particularly destructive diseases. Developing agronomic techniques focus on production of resistant and pathogen-free planting materials and control of insect vectors. HLB infects citrus in nearly all growing regions, and has been particularly devastating in Asian citrus. Meanwhile, Citrus tristeza virus has infected over 100 million citrus trees, mainly in the Americas and Mediterranean. Currently, Witches Broom Disease of Lime is localised to the Middle East, but recently it has been detected in South America. The range of its vectors (D. citri and Hishimonus phycitis) further raises concerns about the potential spread of this disease. Abiotic threats to lime production are also a significant concern; key areas of lime production such as Mexico, India and the Middle East suffer from increasing water stress and high soil salinity, which combined with invasive pests and pathogens, may eliminate lime production in these areas. To ensure future security in lime production, policy makers, researchers and growers will need to examine the potential of more resistant lime cultivars and establish novel areas of cultivation.

AB - Limes as a fruit crop are of great economic importance, key to Asian and South American cuisines and cultivated in nearly all tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Demand for limes is increasing, driven by World Health Organization recommendations. Pests and pathogens have significantly reduced global productivity, while changes in agronomic techniques aim to alleviate this stress. We present here a holistic examination of the major biotic (pests and pathogens) and abiotic (environment and socioeconomic) factors that presently limit global production of lime. The major producers of limes are India, China and Mexico, while loss of lime production in the United States from 2006 has led many countries in the Western Hemisphere (Mexico, Costa Rica and Brazil) to export primarily to the USA. The most widespread invertebrate pests of lime are Toxoptera citricida and Scirtothrips citri. Another insect, Diaphorina citri, vectors both Huanglongbing (HLB) and Witches Broom of Lime, which are particularly destructive diseases. Developing agronomic techniques focus on production of resistant and pathogen-free planting materials and control of insect vectors. HLB infects citrus in nearly all growing regions, and has been particularly devastating in Asian citrus. Meanwhile, Citrus tristeza virus has infected over 100 million citrus trees, mainly in the Americas and Mediterranean. Currently, Witches Broom Disease of Lime is localised to the Middle East, but recently it has been detected in South America. The range of its vectors (D. citri and Hishimonus phycitis) further raises concerns about the potential spread of this disease. Abiotic threats to lime production are also a significant concern; key areas of lime production such as Mexico, India and the Middle East suffer from increasing water stress and high soil salinity, which combined with invasive pests and pathogens, may eliminate lime production in these areas. To ensure future security in lime production, policy makers, researchers and growers will need to examine the potential of more resistant lime cultivars and establish novel areas of cultivation.

KW - Acid lime

KW - Citrus aurantiifolia

KW - Insect vectors

KW - Pathogens

KW - Pest distributions

KW - Soil salinity

KW - Water stress

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85050642669&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85050642669&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s41348-018-0160-x

DO - 10.1007/s41348-018-0160-x

M3 - Review article

AN - SCOPUS:85050642669

VL - 125

SP - 339

EP - 356

JO - Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection

JF - Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection

SN - 1861-3829

IS - 4

ER -