Assessment of In-Vitro Synergy of Fosfomycin with Meropenem, Amikacin and Tigecycline in Whole Genome Sequenced Extended and Pan Drug Resistant Klebsiella Pneumoniae: Exploring A Colistin Sparing Protocol

Manawr Al-Quraini, Meher Rizvi*, Zaaima Al-Jabri, Hiba Sami, Muna Al-Muzahmi, Zakariya Al-Muharrmi, Neelam Taneja, Ibrahim Al-Busaidi, Rajeev Soman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Fosfomycin has emerged as a very useful antimicrobial in management of extremely drug resistant (XDR) and pan drug resistant (PDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae. In this study, we assessed in-vitro synergy of colistin sparing combinations of fosfomycin (FOS) with meropenem (MEM), tigecycline (TGC) and amikacin (AK) against XDR and PDR Klebsiella pneumoniae. Method: Non-replicate fully characterised 18 clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae (15 XDR and 3 PDR strains) were subjected to in-vitro synergy testing by checkerboard and time kill assay. Combinations tested were FOS-MEM, FOS-TGC and FOS-AK with glucose-6-phosphate being incorporated in all runs.WGS was carried out on the Illumina next-generation sequencing platform. Results: FOS-MEM and FOS-AK both demonstrated excellent synergy against all PDRs and all but one XDR. Synergy led to lowering of MICs to susceptible breakpoints. FOS-TGC demonstrated antagonism. MLST-231 K. pneumoniae predominated (14), followed by ST-395 (3) and ST147 (1). Majority harboured OXA-232 (n = 15), while n = 2 carried NDM-1 type and n = 1 co-carried NDM-5 + OXA-232. Mortality was high in both ST-231 (57.1%) and ST-395 (66.6%). Synergy was observed despite widespread presence of resistance markers against aminoglycosides [aph(3)-Ic, aacA4, and rmtf], beta-lactams [blaSHV-11, blaTEM-1b, blaCTX-M-15, and blaOXA-232], fosfomycin [fosA6 and fosA5] and presence of porin proteins OmpK37, OmpA and K. pneumoniae antibiotic efflux pumps Kpn F, H, G, and E. Conclusion: FOS + MEM and FOS + AK are excellent colistin sparing combinations against ST 231, ST-395 and ST-147 XDR and PDR K. pneumoniae. FOS with fewer side effects than colistin, excellent tissue distribution and minimal side effects may be recommended in combination with meropenem.

Original languageEnglish
Article number153
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022


  • Checkerboard assay
  • Fosfomycin
  • In-vitro synergy
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae
  • Meropenem
  • Time kill assay

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Biochemistry
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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