Inflammation is a natural clinical repair response of body's immune system to protect its tissues from various noxious stimuli that continues to remodel throughout the lifecycle because of interactions between genes, lifestyles, and environments. There is a link between inflammation, elevated plasma homocysteine levels and cardiometabolic diseases. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed through which homocysteine can modulate the inflammatory response, though the exact mechanism is not clearly understood. The serum homocysteine concentration is considered as an independent risk factor for many disease conditions including cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Epidemiological evidence indicates that moderate consumption of anthocyanins is associated with reduced risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. However, a clear relationship between anthocyanin and homocysteine has not yet been developed. Anthocyanins are water soluble blue, red, and purple pigments, present in the vacuolar sap of the epidermal tissues of plant parts. As therapeutic agents, they are well-accepted in folk medicine worldwide and are linked to a myriad of health benefits. Anthocyanins impart an amazing role in lessening inflammation in body tissues. The molecular mechanisms involved in anti-inflammatory activities include inhibition of pro-inflammatory enzymes, such as cyclooxygenase-2, lipoxygenase and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase, inhibition of NF-kB and activating protein-1 (AP-1) and activation of phase II antioxidant detoxifying enzymes, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), protein kinase C and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2. This chapter discusses the interrelationship between hyperhomocysteinemia, inflammation and anthocyanins, as well as the mechanisms of action and anti-inflammatory role of anthocyanins in the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases.
|Title of host publication||Nutritional Management and Metabolic Aspects of Hyperhomocysteinemia|
|Publisher||Springer International Publishing|
|Number of pages||17|
|Publication status||Published - May 2 2021|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)