Achievement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals in 18 countries outside Western Europe: The International ChoLesterol management Practice Study (ICLPS)

for the ICLPS Investigators

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Background: Little is known about the achievement of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets in patients at cardiovascular risk receiving stable lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) in countries outside Western Europe. Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted in 452 centres (August 2015−August 2016) in 18 countries in Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America. Patients (n = 9049) treated for ≥3 months with any LLT and in whom an LDL-C measurement on stable LLT was available within the previous 12 months were included. Results: The mean±SD age was 60.2 ± 11.7 years, 55.0% of patients were men and the mean ± SD LDL-C value on LLT was 2.6 ± 1.3 mmol/L (101.0 ± 49.2 mg/dL). At enrolment, 97.9% of patients were receiving a statin (25.3% on high intensity treatment). Only 32.1% of the very high risk patients versus 51.9% of the high risk and 55.7% of the moderate risk patients achieved their LDL-C goals. On multivariable analysis, factors independently associated with not achieving LDL-C goals were no (versus lower dose) statin therapy, a higher (versus lower) dose of statin, statin intolerance, overweight and obesity, female sex, neurocognitive disorders, level of cardiovascular risk, LDL-C value unknown at diagnosis, high blood pressure and current smoking. Diabetes was associated with a lower risk of not achieving LDL-C goals. Conclusions: These observational data suggest that the achievement of LDL-C goals is suboptimal in selected countries outside Western Europe. Efforts are needed to improve the management of patients using combination therapy and/or more intensive LLTs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1087-1094
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2018



  • Cholesterol
  • guidelines
  • lipids
  • observational study
  • statins

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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