A Systematic Review of Sociodemographic, Macroeconomic, and Health Resources Factors on Life Expectancy

Anak Agung Bagus Wirayuda, Moon Fai Chan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


This review was aimed at systematically synthesizing and appraising the existing literature of sociodemographic, macroeconomic, and health resources factors on life expectancy. A systematic literature search of English databases, that is, PubMed/MEDLINE were scrutinized for exploring sociodemographic, macroeconomic, and health resources factors on life expectancy. The literature search was conducted in January 2020, covering a total of 46 articles from 2004 to 2019 met the review criteria, which were fully discussed subsequently. Among sociodemographic factors, infant mortality rate, literacy rate, education level, socioeconomic status, population growth, and gender inequality have a significant impact on life expectancy. Gross domestic product, Gini, income level, unemployment rate, and inflation rate are the main macroeconomic factors that significantly correlated with life expectancy. Among various health care resources, health care facilities, the number of the health care profession, public health expenditure, death rates, smoking rate, pollution, and vaccinations had a significant correlation with life expectancy. The systematic review showed general conformity of different studies, with a significant association between life expectancy and factors comprising several sociodemographic, macroeconomic, and various health care variables. This review found that only one study examined factors affecting life expectancy in Arabic countries. More studies on this region to fill this research gap were highly recommended.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)335-356
Number of pages22
JournalAsia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - May 2021


  • health resources
  • life expectancy
  • macroeconomic
  • sociodemographic
  • systematic review

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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