A highly efficient TiO2-xCx nano-heterojunction photocatalyst for visible light induced antibacterial applications

Vinodkumar Etacheri, Georg Michlits, Michael K. Seery, Steven J. Hinder, Suresh C. Pillai*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

201 Citations (Scopus)


Visible-light-induced antibacterial activity of carbon-doped anatase-brookite titania nano-heterojunction photocatalysts are reported for the first time. These heterostructures were prepared using a novel low temperature (100 C) nonhydrothermal low power microwave (300 W) assisted method. Formation of interband C 2p states was found to be responsible for the band gap narrowing of the carbon doped heterojunctions. The most active photocatalyst obtained after 60 min of microwave irradiation exhibits a 2-fold higher visible-light induced photocatalytic activity in contrast to the standard commercial photocatalyst Evonik-Degussa P-25. Staphylococcus aureus inactivation rate constant for carbon-doped nano-heterojunctions and the standard photocatalyst was 0.0023 and -0.0081 min-1, respectively. It is proposed that the photoexcited electrons (from the C 2p level) are effectively transferred from the conduction band of brookite to that of anatase causing efficient electron-hole separation, which is found to be responsible for the superior visible-light induced photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of carbon-doped anatase-brookite nano-heterojunctions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1663-1672
Number of pages10
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Mar 13 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • antibacterial activity
  • carbon-doping
  • heterojunctions
  • microwave synthesis
  • titanium dioxide
  • visible-light induced photocatalysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)

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