A cross-cultural validity of the E-learning Acceptance Measure (ElAM) in Lebanon and England: A confirmatory factor analysis

Ali Tarhini, Timothy Teo, Takwa Tarhini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)


Despite the prevalence and significance of e-learning in education, there is a dearth of published instruments for educational researchers and practitioners that measure users’ acceptance of e-learning. To meet this need, Teo (2010) developed the E-learning Acceptance Measure (ElAM). The main objective of this paper is to validate the ElAM (Teo, 2010) across two cultures, one is from a European country: England, and the other from Asia: Lebanon. A total sample of 461 university students from two private universities in Lebanon (n = 209) and one university in England (n = 252) participated in this study. Using confirmatory factor analyses, our findings revealed that the original 3-factor solution for ElAM (Teo, 2010) was supported and found to be adequate for the British sample, whereas the results revealed a bad fit for the Lebanese sample. Despite the differences, the ElAM was found to possess an acceptable level of internal consistency and item reliability for the pooled sample. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed at the end of the paper.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1269-1282
Number of pages14
JournalEducation and Information Technologies
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1 2016



  • Confirmatory factor analysis
  • Cross-cultural validity
  • E-learning
  • Facilitating conditions
  • Lebanon
  • Perceived usefulness
  • Technology acceptance
  • Tutor quality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Library and Information Sciences

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