Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy in women worldwide, and one of the deadliest after lung cancer. Currently, standard methods for cancer therapy including BC are surgery followed by chemotherapy or radiotherapy. However, both chemotherapy and radiotherapy often fail to treat BC due to the side effects that these therapies incur in normal tissues and organs. In recent years, various nanoparticles (NPs) have been discovered and synthesized to be able to selectively target tumor cells without causing any harm to the healthy cells or organs. Therefore, NPs-mediated targeted drug delivery systems (DDS) have become a promising technique to treat BC. In addition to their selectivity to target tumor cells and reduce side effects, NPs have other unique properties which make them desirable for cancer treatment such as low toxicity, good compatibility, ease of preparation, high photoluminescence (PL) for bioimaging in vivo, and high loadability of drugs due to their tunable surface functionalities. In this study, we summarize with a critical analysis of the most recent therapeutic studies involving various NPs-mediated DDS as alternatives for the traditional treatment approaches for BC. It will shed light on the significance of NPs-mediated DDS and serve as a guide to seeking for the ideal methodology for future targeted drug delivery for an efficient BC treatment.
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