Metabolic syndrome (MetS) risks cardiovascular diseases due to its associated Dyslipidemia. It is proposed that a low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diet positively ameliorates the MetS and reverses insulin resistance. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the protecting effect of the LCHF diet on MetS-associated Dyslipidemia in an experimental animal model. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups (10/group): the control group, dexamethasone-induced MetS (DEX) (250 µg/kg/day), LCHF-fed MetS group (DEX + LCHF), and High-Carbohydrate-Low-Fat-fed MetS group (DEX + HCLF). At the end of the four-week experiment, fasting glucose, insulin, lipid profile (LDL-C, HDL-C, Triglyceride), oxidized-LDL, and small dense-LDL using the ELISA technique were estimated. HOMA-IR, Apo B/Apo A1 ratio, and TG/HDL were calculated. Moreover, histological examination of the liver by H & E and Sudan III stain was carried out. In the DEX group, rats showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the HOMA-IR, atherogenic parameters, such as s-LDL, OX-LDL, Apo B/Apo A1 ratio, and TG/HDL. The LCHF diet significantly improved the parameters of Dyslipidemia (p < 0.05) by decreasing the Apo B/Apo A1 and TG/HDL-C ratios. Decreased steatosis in LCHF-fed rats compared to HCLF was also revealed. In conclusion, the LCHF diet ameliorates MetS-associated Dyslipidemia, as noted from biochemical results and histological examination.
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