The use of engineered water (EW) nanofluid flooding in carbonates is a new enhanced oil recovery (EOR) hybrid technique that has yet to be extensively investigated. In this research, we investigated the combined effects of EW and nanofluid flooding on oil-brine-rock interactions and recovery from carbonate reservoirs at different temperatures. EW was used as dispersant for SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), and a series of characterisation experiments were performed to determine the optimum formulations of EW and NP for injection into the porous media. The EW reduced the contact angle and changed the rock wettability from the oil-wet condition to an intermediate state at ambient temperature. However, in the presence of NPs, the contact angle was reduced further, to very low values. When the effects of temperature were considered, the wettability changed more rapidly from a hydrophobic state to a hydrophilic one. Oil displacement was studied by injection of the optimised EW, followed by an EW-nanofluid mixture. An additional recovery of 20% of the original oil in place was achieved. The temperature effects mean that these mechanisms are catalytic, and the process involves the initiation and activation of multiple mechanisms that are not activated at lower temperatures and in each standalone technique.
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