Viscosity of liquid alloys: Generalization of Andrade's equation

Ram Nadan Singh, Ferdinand Sommer

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The Andrade relation for the viscosity of liquid metals has been reformulated in terms of the Debye temperature for liquid metals. This semi-empirical relation has been extended to obtain a relation to calculate the composition and temperature dependence of the viscosity of liquid alloys using parameters which can be determined experimentally. The important inputs are the enthalpy of formation, DH, and the excess volume of mixing, DX. The composition dependence of the viscosity and its deviation from linear behavior could be positive or negative depending on the sign and magnitude of DH and DX. Several limiting cases of the semi-empirical relation for the viscosity of liquid alloys are compared and discussed. The results of the semi-empirical relation for viscosity isotherms for binary and ternary liquid alloys are mostly in reasonable agreement with available experimental results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1235-1242
Number of pages8
JournalMonatshefte fur Chemie
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2012



  • Liquid alloys
  • Semi-empirical relation
  • Temperature and composition dependence
  • Viscosity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)

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