Use of evaporation ponds for brine disposal in desalination plants

Mushtaque Ahmed, Walid H. Shayya, David Hoey, Arun Mahendran, Richard Morris, Juma Al-Handaly

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

121 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Desalination plants are being used increasingly in inland areas of many countries for supplying water for domestic purposes. If these areas are too far away from the sea, the opportunity to dispose the reject brine (also known as concentrate, reject water, or wastewater) in the ocean no longer exists, given that ocean disposal is the common practice for plants located in coastal areas. Evaporation ponds are especially suitable to dispose of reject brine from inland desalination plants in arid and semi-arid areas due to the abundance of solar energy. In irrigation projects facing a soil salinity problem due to a shallow saline groundwater table, evaporation ponds are also in use. Saline water tables are lowered by pumping or tile draining and the drainage water is stored in evaporation ponds. While evaporation ponds have long been used for salt production in many parts of the world, the disposal of concentrate from desalination plants in inland areas using evaporation ponds is of much significance both economically and environmentally. Guidelines are needed for the design, construction, maintenance, and operation of evaporation ponds for reject brine disposal in an economical and environmentally-sensitive manner. This paper provides a critical review of concentrate disposal technology using evaporation ponds. Relevant topics are also covered including chemistry of brine, brine disposal methods, use of evaporation ponds in agriculture, determination of evaporation rate, and evaporation enhancement methods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)155-168
Number of pages14
JournalDesalination
Volume130
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2000
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Filtration and Separation

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  • Cite this

    Ahmed, M., Shayya, W. H., Hoey, D., Mahendran, A., Morris, R., & Al-Handaly, J. (2000). Use of evaporation ponds for brine disposal in desalination plants. Desalination, 130(2), 155-168. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0011-9164(00)00083-7