Use of cement by-pass dust in flowable fill mixtures

Khalifa Al-Jabri*, Ramzi Taha, Ali Al-Harthy, Salem Al-Oraimi, Ali Al-Nuaimi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (SciVal)


Flowable fill is a self-compacted, cementitious material used primarily as a backfill in lieu of completed fill. It is generally a mixture of sand, small amount of cement, fly ash, and water. Sand is the major component of most flowable fill mixes. Waste materials such as fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag, and foundry sand are commonly used to ensure low maximum compressive strength. Cement by-pass dust (CBPD) is considered a waste material of the production of cement. An estimated 25,000 tons of CBPD are produced annually in the Sultanate of Oman by Oman Cement Company alone. Most of this material is not effectively used and is disposed of on-site without any reuse causing environmental concerns. The main objective of this research is to investigate the potential use of CBPD in flowable fill mixtures as an alternative to fly ash and as a partial substitute for cement. The physical and chemical properties of both CBPD and cement were determined. Cube and cylindrical samples were prepared using different proportions of CBPD and water-to-cement ratios in order to select the optimum mixes that can be used in flowable fill applications. The optimum mixtures were cured in air and covered in plastic bags in order to study the effect of curing method on the compressive strength of flowable fill mixtures. Promising results were obtained with respect to the use of CBPD as a partial or full substitute for cement in flowable fill mixtures. Results also demonstrated that air cured samples gave a higher compressive strength than samples cured in the plastic bags for the mixes where CBPD was used as a partial substitute for cement. However, in mixes where CBPD was used to fully replace cement, samples that were cured in plastic bags produced higher strength than air cured samples at longer curing periods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)53-57
Number of pages5
JournalCement, Concrete and Aggregates
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2002


  • Cement by-pass dust
  • Cement kiln dust
  • Flowable fill
  • Fly ash
  • Mortar
  • Portland cement
  • Waste material

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Building and Construction
  • Materials Science(all)


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