Unusual surface and edge morphologies, sp2 to sp3 hybridized transformation and electronic damage after Ar+ ion irradiation of few-layer graphene surfaces

Salim Hamood Al-Harthi, Mohammed Elzain, Muataz Al-Barwani, Amal Kora'a, Thomas Hysen, Myo Tay Zar Myint, Maliemadom Ramaswamy Anantharaman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Roughness and defects induced on few-layer graphene (FLG) irradiated by Ar+ ions at different energies were investigated using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy techniques. The results provide direct experimental evidence of ripple formation, sp2 to sp3 hybridized carbon transformation, electronic damage, Ar+ implantation, unusual defects and edge reconstructions in FLG, which depend on the irradiation energy. In addition, shadowing effects similar to those found in oblique-angle growth of thin films were seen. Reliable quantification of the transition from the sp2-bonding to sp3-hybridized state as a result of Ar+ ion irradiation is achieved from the deconvolution of the XPS C (1s) peak. Although the ion irradiation effect is demonstrated through the shape of the derivative of the Auger transition C KVV spectra, we show that the D parameter values obtained from these spectra which are normally used in the literature fail to account for the sp2 to sp3 hybridization transition. In contrast to what is known, it is revealed that using ion irradiation at large FLG sample tilt angles can lead to edge reconstructions. Furthermore, FLG irradiation by low energy of 0.25 keV can be a plausible way of peeling graphene layers without the need of Joule heating reported previously.

Original languageEnglish
Article number466
JournalNanoscale Research Letters
Volume7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012

Fingerprint

Graphite
Ion bombardment
ion irradiation
Graphene
graphene
damage
electronics
Photoelectron spectroscopy
X ray spectroscopy
photoelectric emission
Irradiation
Defects
peeling
irradiation
Joule heating
Peeling
defects
Deconvolution
ripples
spectroscopy

Keywords

  • Argon sputtering
  • Edge reconstructions
  • Electronic damage
  • Few layer graphene

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics

Cite this

Unusual surface and edge morphologies, sp2 to sp3 hybridized transformation and electronic damage after Ar+ ion irradiation of few-layer graphene surfaces. / Al-Harthi, Salim Hamood; Elzain, Mohammed; Al-Barwani, Muataz; Kora'a, Amal; Hysen, Thomas; Myint, Myo Tay Zar; Anantharaman, Maliemadom Ramaswamy.

In: Nanoscale Research Letters, Vol. 7, 466, 2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{c50dbaf9f5ee4672859fcf64c1d47e08,
title = "Unusual surface and edge morphologies, sp2 to sp3 hybridized transformation and electronic damage after Ar+ ion irradiation of few-layer graphene surfaces",
abstract = "Roughness and defects induced on few-layer graphene (FLG) irradiated by Ar+ ions at different energies were investigated using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy techniques. The results provide direct experimental evidence of ripple formation, sp2 to sp3 hybridized carbon transformation, electronic damage, Ar+ implantation, unusual defects and edge reconstructions in FLG, which depend on the irradiation energy. In addition, shadowing effects similar to those found in oblique-angle growth of thin films were seen. Reliable quantification of the transition from the sp2-bonding to sp3-hybridized state as a result of Ar+ ion irradiation is achieved from the deconvolution of the XPS C (1s) peak. Although the ion irradiation effect is demonstrated through the shape of the derivative of the Auger transition C KVV spectra, we show that the D parameter values obtained from these spectra which are normally used in the literature fail to account for the sp2 to sp3 hybridization transition. In contrast to what is known, it is revealed that using ion irradiation at large FLG sample tilt angles can lead to edge reconstructions. Furthermore, FLG irradiation by low energy of 0.25 keV can be a plausible way of peeling graphene layers without the need of Joule heating reported previously.",
keywords = "Argon sputtering, Edge reconstructions, Electronic damage, Few layer graphene",
author = "Al-Harthi, {Salim Hamood} and Mohammed Elzain and Muataz Al-Barwani and Amal Kora'a and Thomas Hysen and Myint, {Myo Tay Zar} and Anantharaman, {Maliemadom Ramaswamy}",
year = "2012",
doi = "10.1186/1556-276X-7-466",
language = "English",
volume = "7",
journal = "Nanoscale Research Letters",
issn = "1931-7573",
publisher = "Springer New York",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Unusual surface and edge morphologies, sp2 to sp3 hybridized transformation and electronic damage after Ar+ ion irradiation of few-layer graphene surfaces

AU - Al-Harthi, Salim Hamood

AU - Elzain, Mohammed

AU - Al-Barwani, Muataz

AU - Kora'a, Amal

AU - Hysen, Thomas

AU - Myint, Myo Tay Zar

AU - Anantharaman, Maliemadom Ramaswamy

PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - Roughness and defects induced on few-layer graphene (FLG) irradiated by Ar+ ions at different energies were investigated using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy techniques. The results provide direct experimental evidence of ripple formation, sp2 to sp3 hybridized carbon transformation, electronic damage, Ar+ implantation, unusual defects and edge reconstructions in FLG, which depend on the irradiation energy. In addition, shadowing effects similar to those found in oblique-angle growth of thin films were seen. Reliable quantification of the transition from the sp2-bonding to sp3-hybridized state as a result of Ar+ ion irradiation is achieved from the deconvolution of the XPS C (1s) peak. Although the ion irradiation effect is demonstrated through the shape of the derivative of the Auger transition C KVV spectra, we show that the D parameter values obtained from these spectra which are normally used in the literature fail to account for the sp2 to sp3 hybridization transition. In contrast to what is known, it is revealed that using ion irradiation at large FLG sample tilt angles can lead to edge reconstructions. Furthermore, FLG irradiation by low energy of 0.25 keV can be a plausible way of peeling graphene layers without the need of Joule heating reported previously.

AB - Roughness and defects induced on few-layer graphene (FLG) irradiated by Ar+ ions at different energies were investigated using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy techniques. The results provide direct experimental evidence of ripple formation, sp2 to sp3 hybridized carbon transformation, electronic damage, Ar+ implantation, unusual defects and edge reconstructions in FLG, which depend on the irradiation energy. In addition, shadowing effects similar to those found in oblique-angle growth of thin films were seen. Reliable quantification of the transition from the sp2-bonding to sp3-hybridized state as a result of Ar+ ion irradiation is achieved from the deconvolution of the XPS C (1s) peak. Although the ion irradiation effect is demonstrated through the shape of the derivative of the Auger transition C KVV spectra, we show that the D parameter values obtained from these spectra which are normally used in the literature fail to account for the sp2 to sp3 hybridization transition. In contrast to what is known, it is revealed that using ion irradiation at large FLG sample tilt angles can lead to edge reconstructions. Furthermore, FLG irradiation by low energy of 0.25 keV can be a plausible way of peeling graphene layers without the need of Joule heating reported previously.

KW - Argon sputtering

KW - Edge reconstructions

KW - Electronic damage

KW - Few layer graphene

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84866134984&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84866134984&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1186/1556-276X-7-466

DO - 10.1186/1556-276X-7-466

M3 - Article

C2 - 22901368

AN - SCOPUS:84866134984

VL - 7

JO - Nanoscale Research Letters

JF - Nanoscale Research Letters

SN - 1931-7573

M1 - 466

ER -