Uniaxial strain in graphene by Raman spectroscopy

G peak splitting, Grüneisen parameters, and sample orientation

T. M G Mohiuddin, A. Lombardo, R. R. Nair, A. Bonetti, G. Savini, R. Jalil, N. Bonini, D. M. Basko, C. Galiotis, N. Marzari, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1122 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We uncover the constitutive relation of graphene and probe the physics of its optical phonons by studying its Raman spectrum as a function of uniaxial strain. We find that the doubly degenerate E2g optical mode splits in two components: one polarized along the strain and the other perpendicular. This splits the G peak into two bands, which we call G+ and G-, by analogy with the effect of curvature on the nanotube G peak. Both peaks redshift with increasing strain and their splitting increases, in excellent agreement with first-principles calculations. Their relative intensities are found to depend on light polarization, which provides a useful tool to probe the graphene crystallographic orientation with respect to the strain. The 2D and 2 D′ bands also redshift but do not split for small strains. We study the Grüneisen parameters for the phonons responsible for the G, D, and D′ peaks. These can be used to measure the amount of uniaxial or biaxial strain, providing a fundamental tool for nanoelectronics, where strain monitoring is of paramount importance

Original languageEnglish
Article number205433
JournalPhysical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics
Volume79
Issue number20
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2009

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axial strain
Graphite
Graphene
Raman spectroscopy
graphene
phonons
Phonons
probes
nanotubes
curvature
Raman spectra
Nanoelectronics
physics
Light polarization
Nanotubes
polarization
Raman scattering
Physics
Monitoring

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials

Cite this

Uniaxial strain in graphene by Raman spectroscopy : G peak splitting, Grüneisen parameters, and sample orientation. / Mohiuddin, T. M G; Lombardo, A.; Nair, R. R.; Bonetti, A.; Savini, G.; Jalil, R.; Bonini, N.; Basko, D. M.; Galiotis, C.; Marzari, N.; Novoselov, K. S.; Geim, A. K.; Ferrari, A. C.

In: Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, Vol. 79, No. 20, 205433, 01.05.2009.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mohiuddin, TMG, Lombardo, A, Nair, RR, Bonetti, A, Savini, G, Jalil, R, Bonini, N, Basko, DM, Galiotis, C, Marzari, N, Novoselov, KS, Geim, AK & Ferrari, AC 2009, 'Uniaxial strain in graphene by Raman spectroscopy: G peak splitting, Grüneisen parameters, and sample orientation', Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, vol. 79, no. 20, 205433. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.79.205433
Mohiuddin, T. M G ; Lombardo, A. ; Nair, R. R. ; Bonetti, A. ; Savini, G. ; Jalil, R. ; Bonini, N. ; Basko, D. M. ; Galiotis, C. ; Marzari, N. ; Novoselov, K. S. ; Geim, A. K. ; Ferrari, A. C. / Uniaxial strain in graphene by Raman spectroscopy : G peak splitting, Grüneisen parameters, and sample orientation. In: Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics. 2009 ; Vol. 79, No. 20.
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