Thrombosis and systemic and cardiac oxidative stress and DNA damage induced by pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles and the effect of nootkatone thereon

Abderrahim Nemmar, Suhail Al-Salam, Sumaya Beegam, Priya Yuvaraju, Badreldin Ali

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Adverse cardiovascular effects of particulate air pollution persist even at lower concentrations than those of the current air quality limit. Therefore, identification of safe and effective measures against particle-induced cardiovascular toxicity is needed. Nootkatone is a sesquiterpenoid in grapefruit with diverse bioactivities including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. However, its protective effect on the cardiovascular injury induced by diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) has not been studied before. We assessed the possible protective effect of nootkatone (90 mg/kg) administered by gavage 1 h before intratracheal instillation of DEPs (30 μg/mouse). Twenty-four hours after the intratracheal administration of DEPs, various thrombotic and cardiac parameters were assessed. Nootkatone inhibited the prothrombotic effect induced by DEPs in pial arterioles and venules in vivo and platelet aggregation in whole blood in vitro. Also, nootkatone prevented the shortening of activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time induced by DEPs. Nootkatone inhibited the increase of plasma concentration of fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, interleukin-6, and lipid peroxidation induced by DEPs. Immunohistochemically, hearts showed an analogous increase in glutathione and nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 expression by cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells after DEP exposure, and these effects were enhanced in mice treated with nootkatone + DEPs. Likewise, heme oxygenase-1 was increased in mice treated with nootkatone + DEPs compared with those treated with DEPs or nootkatone + saline. The DNA damage caused by DEPs was prevented by nootkatoone pretreatment. In conclusion, nootkatoone alleviates DEP-induced thrombogenicity and systemic and cardiac oxidative stress and DNA damage, at least partly, through nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 and heme oxygenase-1 activation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Nootkatoone, a sesquiterpenoid found in grapefruit, alleviates the thrombogenicity and systemic and cardiac oxidative stress and DNA damage in mice exposed to diesel exhaust particles. Nootkatone-induced boosting of nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 and heme oxygenase-1 levels in the heart of mice exposed to diesel exhaust particles suggests that its protective effect is, at least partly, mediated through nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 and heme oxygenase-1 activation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)H917-H927
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Volume314
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2018

Keywords

  • Diesel exhaust particles
  • Heart
  • Nootkatone
  • Nuclear factor erythroidderived 2-like 2
  • Oxidative stress
  • Thrombogenicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)

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