The role of nanoparticles on biofuel production and as an additive in ternary blend fuelled diesel engine: A review

Michael G. Bidir*, N. K. Millerjothi, Muyiwa S. Adaramola, Ftwi Y. Hagos

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

31 Citations (SciVal)


In recent years renewable and cleaner fuel for diesel engines are compulsory due to depletion of fossil fuel. Various types of bio-based fuels are investigated by the researchers. Biodiesel is anticipated as potential contenders of diesel fuel. Though it is possible to utilize pure biodiesel in diesel engines, some burdens like higher density, lower cetane number and lesser calorific value hinder it from replacing conventional diesel completely. Therefore, using blends with biofuels in diesel engines has a preference. Thus, this paper reviews two different approaches on the role of nanoparticles on biofuel production and effects of nanoparticles in biodiesel–diesel fuel blends on performance, combustion analysis and emission characteristics of diesel engines. Wide range of results from previous research studies with potential and application of nanoparticles in bioethanol production, the effect of the addition of nanoparticles into diesel fuel with different biofuels ratios are collected in this review study. There are different engine performances enhancing methods surveyed. Nanoparticles can be utilized in the production of biofuels from feedstock pre-treatment to chemical reaction as catalysts. It was observed from the overall results that by adding nanoparticles, there was a significant reduction in the brake specific fuel consumption about 20% to 23% as compared with biodiesel–diesel blends with and without alcohol as additives. Besides as nanoparticles possess high thermal conductivity, the addition of nanoparticles enhanced the process of combustion and increases the brake power about 2.5% to 4%. Emission results showed that in most reviews, NOx emission is increased by up to 55%, while HC, CO and PM are decreased significantly. It was concluded from the study that a diesel engine could be effectively run and give better performance and effective regulated emissions on the application of added nanoparticles with biodiesel and their blends as fuel in a CI engine.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3614-3627
Number of pages14
JournalEnergy Reports
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021


  • Biofuels
  • Blends
  • Diesel engine performance
  • Nanoparticle

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy(all)


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