Background: Given the rapid pace of globalization and the fact that the Sultanate of Oman is experiencing a significant impact of social media on specifying appearance norms among youth in the country, research into positive body images and self-esteem among young individuals has become a national priority. Whilst body image has been well studied across cultures, both positive body image and the relationship between positive body image and self-esteem among Omani youth have been neglected. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between positive body image and self-esteem and associated sociodemographic factors among Omani university students based on gender.
Methods: This cross-sectional study used an online survey consisting of the two questionnaires that are Body Appreciation Scale-2 and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. A total of 237 students were recruited from Sultan Qaboos University's different colleges.
Results: The results indicated that positive body image has a significant relationship with an individual's self-esteem (β = 0.122, t = 2.197, p=0.038), Cumulative Grade Point Average (cGPA) (β = 0.140, t = 2.306, p=0.022), body mass index (BMI) (β = -0.414, t = -6.930, p < 0.001), monthly household income (β = -0.129, t = 2.467, p=0.029), and the number of social media accounts (≥2, β = -0.132, t = -2.232, p=0.027). In addition, an individual's self-esteem was significantly associated with an individual's cGPA (β = 0.231, t = 3.592, p < 0.001) and mothers' educational level (β = -0.130, t = -2.065, p=0.040) besides body appreciation (β = 0.160, t = 2.491, p=0.013).
Conclusions: The findings of this study shed light on the current status of positive body image among university students of Oman. In light of the new knowledge, we propose health interventions that include strategies such as involvement of family, to maintain and/or promote positive body image perceptions among young individuals and subsequently promote healthy appreciation of the physical appearance and self-esteem.
- Body Image
- Cross-Sectional Studies
- Self Concept