The effects of individual differences on e-learning users' behaviour in developing countries: A structural equation model

Ali Tarhini*, Kate Hone, Xiaohui Liu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

173 Citations (SciVal)


The main objective of our study is to (1) empirically investigate the factors that affect the acceptance and use of e-learning in Lebanon, and (2) investigate the role of a set of individual differences as moderators (e.g., age, gender, experience, educational level) in an extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). A quantitative methodology approach was adopted in this study. To test the hypothesized research model, data was collected from 569 undergraduate and postgraduate students studying in Lebanon via questionnaire. The collected data were analysed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) technique based on AMOS methods in conjunction with multi-group analysis. The result revealed that perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU), subjective norms (SN) and Quality of Work Life (QWL) positively affect students' behavioural intention (BI). We also found that experience moderates the relationship between PEOU, PU and SN on e-learning use intention, and that age difference moderates the effects of PEOU, SN and QWL on BI. In addition, educational level moderates the effects of PEOU, SN on BI, and gender moderates the effects of PU, SN and QWL on BI. Contrary to expectations, a moderating role of age on the relationship between PU and BI was not found. Similarly, gender was not found to affect the relationship between PEOU and BI, and educational level did not moderate the relationship between PU or QWL and BI. In light of these findings, implications to both theory and practice are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)153-163
Number of pages11
JournalComputers in Human Behavior
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Developing countries
  • Individual differences
  • Structural equation modeling
  • TAM
  • Technology acceptance
  • e-learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Psychology(all)


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