Tectonic college of transitional crust, India-Afghan collision zone, Waziristan-Kurram region, NW Pakistan

M. A. Khan, I. A. Abbasi, S. R. Khan, S. Hadi, M. Tariq

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The India-Afghanistan collision zone exposed in Kurram-Waziristan area of NW Pakistan comprises a stack of thrust sheets derived from various parts of a continental shelf-ocean floor transition formerly located at the NW margin of the Indian plate (Beck et al., 1996). From SW to NE, these thrust sheets include Waziristan Ophiolite, Khaisora Nappe of outer shelf sediments, Shahur Tangi-Kahi Nappe of deep-marine olistostromal sequence and Isha Nappe of inner continental shelf. Late Palaeocene and younger shallow-marine and fluvial sediments unconformably overly the thrust stack and are involved in deformation. Four stages of tectonic evolution are recognized in the Waziristan-Kurram collision zone: Middle Cretaceous (∼ 90 Ma): An early phase of intraoceanic ophiolite obduction at ∼ 90 Ma gave rise to Shahur Tangi-Kahi Group of sediments in a fore-deep setting. This event conforms to a regional middle Cretaceous orogeny (Semail Ophiolites; Kohistan-Karakoram collision; Kamila shear zone, Kohistan). Early Palaeocene (∼ 65 Ma): A major thrust displaced the extensive nappe of Shahur Tangi-Kahi Group eastward on to the entire NW continental shelf of the Indian Plate during the Early Palaeocene, contemporaneous with and directly above the syndepositional breccia of Lokhart Formation. A closely following break-back thrusting event involved internal imbrication of the Waziristan Ophiolite, thrust emplacement of the Waziristan ophiolite stack eastward onto the outer shelf (Khaisora Group) and that of the Khaisora Nappe onto the Shahur Tangi-Kahi Nappe. This Palaeocene thrust stacking was complete prior to the deposition of Late Palaeocene Patala Formation onto the Shahur Tangi-Kahi Group (Thal area), that of the Datakhel Formation on the stacked Waziristan Ophiolite, and that of the Ghazij Formation and the younger sediments on the contact between the Isha and Shahur Tangi-Kahi groups (Khajuri Post area). Post Middle Eocene (∼ 45 Ma): Late Palaeocene-Middle Eocene shallow-marine transgression onto the thrust stack was followed by a major hiatus that marked onset of fluvial sedimentation at the expense of marine sedimentation. Late Miocene Kamlial Formation in the north (near ThaI) and the Pliocene Litra Formation (near Bannu) mark the earliest molasse sediments in this region. Quaternary (<2 Ma): Molasse sediments in Waziritan-Kurram foreland are uplifted, tilted and folded. An extensive sequence of conglomerates overlying the Litra Formations is tilted to high angles in the foreland region near Bannu, suggesting Holocene (

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)35
Number of pages1
JournalJournal of Asian Earth Sciences
Volume19
Issue number3A
Publication statusPublished - 2001

Fingerprint

collision zone
nappe
Paleocene
thrust
ophiolite
crust
tectonics
continental shelf
Indian plate
molasse
sediment
Eocene
sedimentation
Cretaceous
imbrication
obduction
shelf sediment
hiatus
breccia
tectonic evolution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Earth-Surface Processes
  • Geology

Cite this

Tectonic college of transitional crust, India-Afghan collision zone, Waziristan-Kurram region, NW Pakistan. / Khan, M. A.; Abbasi, I. A.; Khan, S. R.; Hadi, S.; Tariq, M.

In: Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 19, No. 3A, 2001, p. 35.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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