Synthesis of alkyl- and aryl-amino-substituted anthraquinone derivatives by microwave-assisted copper(0)-catalyzed Ullmann coupling reactions

Younis Baqi, Christa E. Müller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

30 Citations (Scopus)


This protocol describes the efficient, generally applicable Ullmann coupling reaction of bromaminic acid with alkyl- or aryl-amines in phosphate buffer under microwave irradiation using elemental copper as a catalyst. the reaction leads to a number of biologically active compounds. As a prototypical example, the synthesis of a new, potent antagonist of human platelet P2Y 12 receptors, which has potential as an antithrombotic drug, is described in detail. The optimized protocol includes a description of an appropriate reaction setup, thin Layer chromatography for monitoring the reaction and a procedure for the isolation, purification and characterization of the anticipated product. The reaction is performed without the use of a glove box and there is no requirement for an inert atmosphere. The reaction typically proceeds within 2-30 min, the protocol, including workup, generally takes 1-3 h to complete.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)945-953
Number of pages9
JournalNature Protocols
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2010


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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