Herein Handal oil extraction from waste biomass is investigated for biodiesel production via esterification and transesterification processes. Furthermore, the physicochemical characteristics of Handal biodiesel (density, kinematic viscosity, specific gravity, pour point, flash point, and cloud point) was performed along with testing the fuel quality used in internal combustion engines. The flash point of the obtained Handal biodiesel (49.5 °C) was lower than that of petroleum diesel (68.3 °C). While at 40 °C, the kinematic viscosity of used Handal oil (4.476 cSt), which was higher than that of diesel fuel (2.6 cSt) and fossil diesel (2.27 cSt). Pourpoint of the used Handal oil was −9 and lower than that of Handal biodiesel, which is +3. The sulfur content of Handal oils was 193 mg/kg, which was higher than the Handal biodiesel value of 62 mg/kg, but significantly lower than that of diesel fuels (≤100 ppm). Similar engine performance regarding thermal efficiency between pure diesel and biodiesel at different engine speeds and loads was detected. The utilisation of such waste stream (Handal wild plant) in the production of biodiesel fuel will aid upcycling an otherwise waste and problematic thermochemical conversion feedstock by adding value for the application in the energy sector.
- Handal seed oil
- Internal combustion engine
- Physicochemical properties
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment