Solitons and modulation instability of the perturbed Gerdjikov–Ivanov equation with spatio-temporal dispersion

Kaltham K. Al-Kalbani, K. S. Al-Ghafri*, E. V. Krishnan, Anjan Biswas

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


This paper is exploring the optical solitons to perturbed Gerdjikov–Ivanov (GI) equation in optical fibers. Using traveling wave transformation, the complex form of perturbed GI equation is reduced to a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE). Then, the improved projective Riccati equations method has been implemented to solve the ODE analytically. Different types of solutions such as bright, kink and singular optical soliton structures are obtained. In addition, W-shaped, kink-dark and singular-kink waves are obtained under specific values for the physical parameters in the model. The existence conditions of all optical solitons are given. Also, the behaviors of some optical solitons are illustrated graphically in this paper by selecting appropriate values for the physical parameters. Besides, the modulation instability of the perturbed GI equation is reported.

Original languageEnglish
Article number111523
JournalChaos, Solitons and Fractals
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • improved projective Riccati equations method
  • optical solitons
  • Perturbed Gerdjikov–Ivanov equation
  • W-shaped soliton

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
  • Mathematics(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)
  • Applied Mathematics

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