Socio-demographic and psychosocial correlates of erectile dysfunction among hypertensive patients

Mohd Ariff Fadzil, Hatta Sidi*, Zaliha Ismail, Muhamad Rahimi Che Hassan, Khin Thuzar, Marhani Midin, Nik Ruzyanei Nik Jaafar, Srijit Das

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Objective The main aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of ED and the associated socio-demographic and psychological correlates among hypertensive patients from a rural multiethnic community in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among hypertensive patients attending rural primary care clinics. The socio-demographic, health characteristics, erectile function and levels of depression, anxiety and stress were recorded and analysed. The International Index of ErectileFunction-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) were used to assess erectile function and the levels of depression, anxiety and stress, respectively. Results A total of 253 hypertensive patients comprising 178 (70.4%) Malays, 56 (22.1%) Chinese and 18 (7.5%) Indians participated. The mean age of participants was 59.8 ± 10.62 years. Overall, the prevalence rate of ED was 62%: 90 (35%) with moderate and 69 (27%) with severe ED. The prevalence rate of ED among those aged 65 years or older (83.1%) was significantly higher than those less than 65 years (51.8%), (p < 0.001). Higher prevalence rates were also noted among the Chinese (78.6%) compared to Malays (59.6%) and Indians (50%) (p = 0.021); lower education level (69.1%) (p = 0.026), among hypertensive patients with concomitant diabetes mellitus (70.6%) (p = 0.026) and WHR ≥0.9 (31.3%) (p = 0.021). However, no significant association was found between depression, anxiety and stress scores with IIEF-5 score. Conclusion The prevalence rate of ED among Malaysian hypertensive patients is high. The rate increases significantly with age, Chinese ethnicity, concomitant diabetes mellitus, lower education level, WHR and the number of pack years of smoking. ED should be properly recognized and managed in hypertensive patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S23-28
JournalComprehensive Psychiatry
Issue numberSUPPL. 1
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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