Signaling pathways of hyperhomocystenemia and oxidative stress

Mostafa I. Waly*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Homocysteine (HCY) is a non-protein-forming, sulfur amino acid whose metabolism is at the intersection of two metabolic pathways, remethylation and trans-sulfuration pathways. HCY is characterized by its chemical tendency to promote oxidative stress and cellular toxicity. Three major forms of homocysteine species exist in human blood circulation; albumin-bound, disulfide from, and sulfhydryl form. Current laboratory methods detect the presence of all three forms and report this as total homocysteine concentration [1]. Normal homocysteine concentrations range from 5-15 μmol/L, intermediately elevated homocysteine levels are between 31 and 100 μmol/L, while severely elevated levels are >100 μmol/L [1].

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationNutritional Management and Metabolic Aspects of Hyperhomocysteinemia
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages7
ISBN (Electronic)9783030578398
ISBN (Print)9783030578381
Publication statusPublished - May 2 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

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