Sex disparity in the management and outcomes of dyslipidemia of diabetic patients in the Arabian Gulf: Findings from the CEPHEUS study

Ibrahim Al-Zakwani, Fatma Al-Mahruqi, Khalid Al-Rasadi, Abdullah Shehab, Wael Al Mahmeed, Mohammed Arafah, Ali T. Al-Hinai, Omer Al Tamimi, Mahmoud Al Awadhi, Raul D. Santos

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Background: Little is known about sex gap in the management and outcomes of dyslipidemia among diabetics in the Arabian Gulf. The aim if this study was to determine sex differences in the management and outcomes of dyslipidemia in diabetic patients in the Arabian Gulf. Methods: This study was derived from the Centralized Pan-Middle-East Survey on the management of hypercholesterolemia. Patients recruited were aged ≥18 years on lipid lowering drugs for ≥3 months (stable medication for ≥6 weeks). Outcomes were based on the joint Consensus Statement of the American Diabetes Association and American College of Cardiology Foundation. Analyses were performed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression techniques. Results: The mean age of the cohort (n = 3336) was 57 ± 11 years and 45% (n = 1486) were females. Females were less likely to be on rosuvastatin (7.6% vs 12%; P < 0.001), atorvastatin (41% vs 46%; P = 0.005) and combination hypolipidemic therapy (5.6% vs 2.8%; P < 0.001) but more likely to be on simvastatin (51% vs 39%; P < 0.001) than males. Females, especially those with very high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk status, were also less likely to achieve LDL-cholesterol [adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 0.58; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.40-0.86; P = 0.006], non-HDL-cholesterol [aOR, 0.68; 95% CI: 0.46-0.99; P = 0.048] and apolipoprotein B [aOR, 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44-0.92; P = 0.016] lipid targets. Conclusions: Diabetic women were less likely to be on optimal hypolipemic therapy and consequently less likely to attain lipid goals compared to men. This shows a sex gap on dyslipidemia treatment in the region. Diabetic women with very high ASCVD risk status need to be aggressively treated to lower their risk of cardiovascular events.

Original languageEnglish
Article number25
JournalLipids in Health and Disease
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 5 2018



  • Apolipoprotein B
  • Arabs
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Low density lipoprotein cholesterol
  • Middle East
  • Sex

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical

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