Role of EEG in Predicting Outcome of Hepatic Encephalopathy Patients

Roshan Koul*, Rakhi Maiwall, Archana Ramalingam, Satyendra Kumar, Ravinder Mohan Dhamija, Viniyendra Pamecha, Shiv Kumar Sarin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: A retrospective analysis of 151 patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE) who were admitted to the liver intensive care unit (LICU) and liver transplant intensive care unit (TICU) and underwent electroencephalographic (EEG) testing was performed. We describe a method of grading the EEGs of patients with HE and predicting their subsequent outcomes. Methods: All liver failure patients with HE who underwent routine EEG testing in the LICU or TICU between October 1, 2018 and March 31, 2019, at the Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences (ILBS) were enrolled in this analysis. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The patients were divided into four grades of HE based on established EEG criteria (HE-EEG). Results: One hundred fifty-one patients [127 Male (84%), 24 Female (16%)] with HE who underwent EEG testing were enrolled. Ages ranged from 3 to 74 years, with a mean age of 48.34 years and median interquartile range (IQR) of 49 years (38–60 years). Ninety-five patients (62.9%) had grade 1 and 2 hepatic encephalopathy, with a statistically significant, worse outcome seen in grades 3 and 4 HE patients. Seizures were seen in 30 (20.1%) of HE patients. Fifteen of 30 patients with seizures (50%) were in the ethanol and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) groups. Forty-four of 59 (74.6%) MRIs and 35 of 60 (58.3%) CTs demonstrated some type of brain abnormality in these patients. Imaging abnormalities and the presence of seizures did not contribute to a statistically worse outcome. Conclusion: EEG has an important role in predicting the outcome and prognosis in HE. Patients with grade 3 or 4 HE-EEG, or with progressive worsening of HE-EEG grading were associated with the highest mortality rates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)272-288
Number of pages17
JournalNeurodiagnostic Journal
Volume60
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Keywords

  • Alpha activity
  • EEG
  • hepatic encephalopathy
  • patient outcome
  • periodic discharges

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Medical Laboratory Technology

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